# Generations of Computers.

Timeline created by eneko urquijo
• # Norbert Wiener

Nace la Cibernética
It is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems.
In other words, it is the science that studies energy flows closely linked to control theory and systems theory. Both in its origins and in its evolution, in the second half of the twentieth century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social systems. Complex systems affect your external environment and then adapt to it.
• # Alan Turing

Colossus
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine at arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated and also the very input of its own tape
• # John Presper Eckert y John William Mauchly

ENIAC
It was one of the first general purpose computers. It was Turing-complete, digital, and capable of being reprogrammed to solve “an extensive class of numerical problems.” It was initially designed to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army Ballistic Research Laboratory.
• # Howard H. Aiken con IBM

Harvard Mark I
The computer used electromagnetic signals to move the mechanical parts. This machine was slow (it took 3-5 seconds per calculation) and inflexible (the sequence of calculations could not be changed); but he executed basic mathematical operations and complex calculations of equations about parabolic motion.It worked with relays, was programmed with switches and read the data of perforated paper tapes.
• # Bardeen, Brattain y Shockley

It deals with those circuits or devices constructed entirely of solid materials and in which the electrons, or other charge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material. The term is often used to contrast with previous vacuum technologies and gas discharge tube devices and it has also been agreed to exclude electromechanical devices (relays, switches, hard drives and other devices with moving parts from the solid state).
• # Alan Turing

Manchester Mark=For its architecture it was necessary to use around 800 km of cables and more than 3000000 connections, between pistons, cogwheels and other elements.Some of its features were: a main memory of 256 words of 40 bits each based on vacuum tubes; a memory that stored 3750 words; Performed a standard operation, in 1.8 milliseconds and instead to perform a multiplication was much slower, adding to the time of a standard operation 0.6 milliseconds for each bit that had the multiplier.
• # Eckert y Mauchly

BINAC
The instructions were executed in both processors, and then the results were compared, if these were the same, the next instruction was followed, if they were different, the execution was stopped. The memory capacity of each processor was 512 words of 31 bits each, and they used the binary system. Its two power units measured 0.45 × 0.45 × 1.2 meters each, and its console for data input measured 0.90 × 0.60 × 0.90 meters
• # Diseño de Charles Babbage

1ª impresora eléctrica para texto
A printer is a computer peripheral that allows you to produce a permanent copy of texts or graphics of documents stored in electronic format, printing them on physical media such as paper. The history of the printer can be traced along with the creation of the first computer, the analytical machine of Charles Babbage, although the inventor never managed to build his PC, he did finish the plans in which the printing mechanism was included.
• # J. Presper Eckert y John William Mauchly

UNIVAC I= con memorias de cinta magnética
It was the first commercial computer manufactured in the United States, delivered on March 31, 1951 to the census office.
It was a computer that weighed 7,250 kg, was composed of 5000 vacuum tubes, and could perform about 1000 calculations per second. It was a computer that processed the digits in series.These memories did not allow immediate access to the data, but were more reliable than the cathode ray tube memories used.
• # John van Neumann

EDVAC
The 'EDVAC was one of the first electronic computers. Unlike ENIAC, it was not decimal, but binary, and had the first program designed to be stored. This design became an architecture standard for most modern computers. The design of the EDVAC is considered a success in the history of computer science. The computer was designed to be binary with addition, subtraction and automatic multiplication and programmed division.
• # Werner Jacobi y Harwick Johnson

An integrated circuit (IC), also known as a chip or microchip, is a structure of small dimensions of semiconductor material, usually silicon, of a few square millimeters of surface (area), on which electronic circuits are generally manufactured by photolithography and which is protected inside a plastic or ceramic package. The encapsulation has metal conductors suitable for making a connection between the integrated circuit and a printed circuit.
• # IBM

IBM 701, known as the "Defense Calculator" while it was being developed, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952 and was the first commercial scientific computer from IBM. His brothers in office computing were the IBM 702 and the IBM 650. During the four years of production, 20 units were sold.
• # IBM

Lenguajes de programación: Fortran
The language was designed taking into account that the programs would be written on punched cards of 80 columns. Thus, for example, the lines should be numbered and the only possible alteration in the order of execution was produced with the goto instruction. These features have evolved from version to version. The current ones contain subprograms, recursion and a varied range of control structures.
• # Jack S. Kilby

1er microchip
It consisted of a square Germanium tablet, a metallic and crystalline chemical element, measuring six millimeters per side and containing only one transistor, three resistors and one capacitor. Unlike conventional circuits, in the integrated circuit all its components are printed as a single piece by photolithography, thus lowering manufacturing costs and maintenance.
• # Douglas Engelbart y Bill English

1er ratón informático
This first prototype, manufactured in an artisanal way and with a wooden casing, fit perfectly in the shape of the hand and had two metal wheels that, when moving on a flat surface, moved two axes that marked the vertical and horizontal movement of the cursor on the screen. In addition, to be able to execute actions, the device included a single red button at the top
• # IBM

IBM 360
It was the first family of computers that was designed to cover applications, regardless of their size or environment. Allowing IBM to draw a series of compatible models at differential prices.The IBM 360 is one of the first commercial computers that used integrated circuits, and could perform both numerical analysis and administration and / or file processing tasks. The 360 ​​is considered the starting point for the third generation of computers.
• # IBM

1er Bug informático
It seems that there was some kind of problem that prevented the correct operation of the monstrous data computing machine, specifically in relay # 70 of panel F, found the "bug" and is that it was literally a "bug." A small moth had sneaked into the relay causing it not to make contact correctly and preventing its operation.The funniest and most curious thing about the story is that, consciously, the computer activity log book was documented with the comment.
• # Robert Noice y Gordon Moore

Intel Corporation
It is the largest manufacturer of integrated circuits in the world4 according to its annual turnover.5 The US company is the creator of the x86 series of processors, the most commonly found processors in most personal computers.
• # Joseph C. Licklider

Red ARPANET
it was a network of computers created by order of the Department of Defense of the United States (DOD) to use it as a means of communication between the different academic and state institutions
• # Arturo Roman y Cristoph Edmond.

Sistema operativo Unix
It is a portable, multitasking and multi-user operating system