Foundations of IDT

By cselfe
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    Educational Film

    educational film was being produced
  • First school museum opens in St. Louis

    The exact date is not known, just that it opened in 1905
  • Instructional Films

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    Visual Instruction Movement

    marked increase in the use of visual materials (filma, pictures, lantern slides) in public schools
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    Audiovisual Instruction

    focus of the field shifted from visual instruction to audiovisual instruction
  • The creation of the Department of Visual Instruction

    merging of the three existing national professional organizations for visual instruction
  • Instructional Design Procedures

    In the 1940s, psychologists and educators developed training materials for the military services which were the origins of instructional design procedures
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    Behavioral Learning Theory

  • Television

    In the 1950s ...
    * increased interest in television as a medium for delivering instruction
    * researchers at IBM developed the first CAI author language and designed one of the first CAI programs to be used in public schools
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    IT is a Process

    discussed instructional technology as a process instead of equating it with media
  • Education Television

    the FCC decided to set aside 242 television channels for educational purposes
  • Skinner's Article

    B.F. Skinner's article "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching" began a minor revolution in education.
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    Programmed Instruction Movement

    ... from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s
  • Bloom's Taxonomy was created

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    CAI Systems

    From the 1960s to the early 1970s, CAI systems such as PLATO and TICCIT were developed.
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    Behavioral and cognitive information processing theory dominated psychology

    throughout the 1960s and 1970s
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    Gagne's theory evolved throughout throughout the 60s, 70s, and 80s

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    Instructional Theory

    the birth of instructional theory and active research on instructional strategies
  • Preparing Objectives

    Robert Mager wrote "Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction" to teach educators how to write objectives.
  • Ford Foundation

    The Ford Foundation decided to focus its support on public television instead of instructional television, which caused growth to stall
  • First definition

    first definition to be approved by the major professional organization within the field of educational technology was published
  • Robert Gagne's Publication

    publication of first edition of "The Conditions of Learning" by Robert Gagne: 5 domains of learning outcomes and 9 events of instruction
  • General Systems Theory

    Silvern presented an early attempt to apply general systems theory as an approach to accomplishing learning tasks and solving instructional problems
  • Formative Evaluation

    Michael Scriven coined the term "Formative Evaluation" and contrasted is with Summative Evaluation.
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    Instructional Design Models

    Throughout the 1970s, the number of instructional design models greatly increased
  • Commission of Instructional Technology

    Commission of Instructional Technology established by the US government to examine potential benefits and problems associated with increased use of instructional technology in schools
  • Second Definition

    the Commission of Instructional Technology developed two definitions of instructional technology: 1 reflected older view, 1 described it as a process
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    Cognitive Information Processing Theory

  • Military Model

    Several branches of the U.S. military adopted an instructional design model.
  • Third Definition

    Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT) adopted a definition of the field that was 16 statements spread over 7 pages, with 9 pages of tables and graphs and 9 more chapters of elaboration
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    Technological Advances

    many developments affected the field of instructional technology ... technological advances: microcomputer, interactive video, CD-ROM, Internet, distance learning, collaborative learning
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    Personal Computers

    In the 1980s ...
    * instructional design was having little impact on public education
    * increasing interest in the use of personal computers for instructional purposed
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    Cognitive Learning Theory

    shift to cognitive learning theory and related instructional theories
  • Computer Usage

    Computers were being used for instructional purposes in more than 40% of all elementary schools and more than 75% of all secondary schools in the U.S.
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    Computers and Movements

    During the 1990s ...
    * computers were used primarily for drill and practice and word processing
    * human performance improvement movement
    * growing interest in constructivist views of teaching and learning
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    constructivism came to prominence as an educational philosophy
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    shift to constructivism and situated learning
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    Major shift for instructional designers

    early 1990s marked a major shift for instructional designers as a first challenge to positivist or objectivist psychology
  • Another AECT Definition

    the AECT provided a concise definition statement instead of their ridiculously long one
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    Rapid Advances in Computers

    In the 2000s ...
    * rapid advances in computers and other digital technology have led to a rapidly increasing interest in, and use of, media for instructional purposes
    * increasing use of the Internet as a means of presenting instruction to learners
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    More attention to practice, engagement, and experience

  • Yet another AECT Definition

    AECT came out with a new definition of the field of educational technology, adding the words "ethical" and "facilitate"