Educational technology

Evolution of Technology in Education

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    John Dewey

    Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. He was a major representative of the progressive and progressive populist philosophies of schooling during the first half of the 20th century in the USA.
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    Jean Piaget

    Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology".
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    Lev Vygotsky

    Vygotsky's interests in the fields of developmental psychology, child development, and education were extremely diverse. The philosophical framework he provided includes not only insightful interpretations about the cognitive role of tools of mediation, but also the re-interpretation of well-known concepts in psychology such as the notion of internalization of knowledge. Vygotsky introduced the notion of zone of proximal development, an innovative metaphor capable of describing not the actual, b
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    B. F. Skinner

    Skinner was quoted as saying "Teachers must learn how to teach ... they need only to be taught more effective ways of teaching." Skinner asserted that positive reinforcement is more effective at changing and establishing behavior than punishment, with obvious implications for the then widespread practice of rote learning and punitive discipline in education.
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    Jerome Bruner

    Bruner is an American psychologist who has contributed to cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and to the general philosophy of education.
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    Robert M. Gagné

    Gagné was an American educational psychologist best known for his "Conditions of Learning". Gagné pioneered the science of instruction during WWII for the air force with pilot training. Later he went on to develop a series of studies and works that helped codify what he and many others considered to be 'good instruction.' He was also involved in applying concepts of instructional theory to the design of computer-based training and multimedia-based learning
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    Howard Gardner

    Gardner has been involved in school reform efforts in the United States since 1980s. His theory of multiple intelligences has not been readily accepted within academic psychology but has been highly influential in education. Traditionally, schools have focused on the development of logical and linguistic intelligences. These intelligences are also focused on through standard Intelligence Quotient, aka the IQ Test.
  • First Computer used for instruction

    Computer-driven flight simulator is used to train MIT pilots.
  • First computer used with school children

    First computer used with school children
    The IBM 650 Computer was used to teach binary arithmetic in New York City
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    University Time-Sharing Systems

    Faculty & students across the country begin to use mainframe systems for programming and sharing utilities
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    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) movement emerges

    Large-scale, federally funded university projects began using mainframe.minicomputer systems with schools.
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    Mainframe and Mini Computer Applications dominate field

    Schools begin using computers for instruction and administration.
  • First Micro Computer enters Schools

  • CAI movement declines; Computer literacy movement begins

    CAI movement declines; Computer literacy movement begins
    Movement encouraged by Arthur Luehrmann to improve skills in programming and using software tools (e.g., word processing)
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    Integrated Learning Systems emerge

    Schools begin to see ILS networked systems as cost-effective solutions for instruction to address required standards.
  • World Wide Web is born

    World Wide Web is born
    First browser (Mosaic) transforms a formerly text-based internet into a combo of text and graphics. Also known as "The Information Superhighway"
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    Internet Use explodes

    Online and distance learning increases in higher ed and k-12 schools
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    Facebook Generation

    As of July 2011, Facebook has more than 750 million active users causing it to be one of the top ways for people to communicate worldwide
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    ISTE issues new standards

  • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) creates standards

    ISTE sponsors NETS to guide technology skills, first for students, then for teachers and administrators.