Educational Technology Theories

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    Social Activism Theory: John Dewey

    Learning as a social experience
    Learning is individual growth that comes about through social experiences
    Growth is fostered through hands-on activities connect to real-world issues and problems.
    School curriculum should arise from students' interests and be taught as integrated topics, rather than as isolated skills.
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    Scaffodling Theory: Lev Vugotsky

    Learning as a Cognitive Building Process
    Learning is cognitive development shaped by individual differences and the influence of culture.
    Adults (experts) and children (novices) perceive the world differently. The difference between them is the Zone of Proximal Development.
    Adults support learning through scaffolding, or helping children build on what they already know.
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    Child Development Theory: Jean Piaget

    Stages of Development
    Learning is cognitive growth through neurological and social maturation.
    Children go through stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concret, and formal operations) by interacting with their environment.
    When they confront unknowns, they experience disequilibrium; they respond with assimilation (fitting it into their views) or accommodation (changing their views).
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    Behaviorist Theory: B.F. Skinner

    B.F. SkinnerLearning is an activity that occurs inside the mind and can be inferred only by observed behaviors
    (Theory underlying directed technology integration stratgeies)
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    Discovery Learning: Jerome Bruner

    Instructional Support for Child Development
    Learning is cognitive growth through interaction with the environment.
    Children are more likely to understand and remember concepts that they discover during their interaction with the environment.
    Teachers support discovert learning by providing opportunities for exploring and manipulating objects and doing experiments.
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    Cognitive-Behavioral Theory: Robery Gagne

    Providing Conditions for Learning
    Learning is shaped by providing optimal instructional conditions
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    Multiple Intellengces Theories: Howard Gardner

    The rold of intelligence in learning
    Learning is shaped by innate intelligences:
    -linguistic: uses language effectively, writes clearly and persuasively
    -musical: communicated by writing and playing music.
    -Logical-mathematical: Reasons logically, recognizes patterms; formulates and tests hypotheses; solves problems in math and science.
    -Spatial: Perceives the world visually, can recreate things after seeing them.
    -Bodily-kinesthetic: uses the body and tools skillfully
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    Systems Theory and Systematic Instructional Design

    Managing the Complexity of Teaching
    Learning is fostered by using a system of instruction based on behaviorist information processing, and cognitive behaviorist theories.
  • First Computer used for instruction

    Computer-driven flight simulator trains MIT pilots
  • First Computer used with school children

    IBM 650 computer teaches binary arithmetic in NYC
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    University time-sharing systems

    Faculty/students in universities across the country use mainframe systems for programming and share utilities
  • Information-Processing Theory: Atkinson and Shiffrin

    The Mind as Computer
    sensory register: receive information
    short-term memory: hold information temporarily
    long-term memory: to store information indefinitely
    Learning is encoding information into human memory, similar to the way a computer stores information
  • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) Movement emerges

    Large-scale, federally funded university projects use main-frame/minicomputer systems with schools
    (Early 1970s)
  • Mainframe and minicomputer applications dominate field

    Schools begin using computers for instruction and administration CDC President William Norris announces PLATO will revolutionize instruction (Mid-to-late 1970s)
  • First microcomputers enter schools

    Using desktop systems, classroom teachers begin to take back control of instructional and administrative applications from district data-processing offices
  • CAI movement declines; computer literacy movement begins

    Arthur Luehrmann coins term computer literacy for skills in programming and using software tools (e.g. word processing) Molnar warns that non-computer literate students will be educationally disadvantaged
    (Late 1970s)
  • Microcomputer aplications spawn movements

    Field focueses on software publishing initiatives and teacher authroing software. The computer literacy computers-as-tools approach gives way to Logo's computer-based, problem-solving approach
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    Integrated learning systems (ILSs) emerge

    Schools being to see ILS networked systems as cost-effective solutions for instruction to address required standards; marks movement away from stand-alone systems and toward central server with connected computers
  • World Wide Web (WWW) is born

    First browser (Mosaic) transforms a formerly text-based internet into a combination of text and graphics. Teachers enter the "Information Superhighway"
  • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) creates standards

    ISTE sponsors creation of National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) to guide technology skills, first for students, then for teachers and administrators
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    Internet use explodes

    Online and distance learning increases in higher eduactions, then in k-12 schools
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    International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

    issues new, updated standards for teachers, students and administrators