Development Sociology

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  • 1492

    Columbus' arrival in America

    Marking the start of colonization and, thus, globalization.
  • 1521

    Spanish colonization of the Philippines

    Influencing the country's religion, language and other cultural practices.
  • Settlement of Britians and Dutchmen in Eastern Asia and Northern America

    Trading for cotton, spices and tobacco, starting the slavery practices.
  • Independence for most Latin-American countries

  • Start naturalist theories

    And environmental determinism thinking. This was criticized late 20th century since the ideas were used to justify racial domination and dit not consider individuals.
  • European powers divided the African continent

  • End of slavery

    Leading to some protection for indigenous peoples.
  • Wall street crash & start of the Great Depression

    Challenging the classical economists and rising the popularity of Keynesianism.
  • The post-war reconstructions

    Introduced in the Marshall plan and the speech of Harry Truman
  • The Bretton Woods conference

    The setup of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), The World Bank and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • Start of the decolonization

    Due to the economic problems of Western Europe, the plea of the USA and Soviet-Union for the opportunity to spread their influences and the rise of multinational corporations.
  • The battle of Manila

    In which the Philippines were freed by the Americans.
  • Rise of migration after world war II

    Partly due to the facilitation of transport and communication technology.
  • Philippine independence

    & becoming a democracy
  • Setup structuralist theory

    In Latin-America & Africa
  • Women speaking up for their rights

  • Communist & Socialist governments taming nature

    Was a key development strategy in centrally-planned economies.
  • Proto-facists promoted biochemical control

    In order to improve agricultural yields. This was done by making breeding and farming separate activities. Also, seed regulations were set up.
  • The Linear Stages model of Rostow

    As part of the modernization theory
  • Setup dependencia theory

    In Latin-America & Africa, which experienced remaining power relations after decolonization
  • Setup of grassroots or bottom-up approaches

    Since top-down approaches in reducing poverty did not seem to be effective.
  • Legislative changes for women

    To eradicate obstacles
  • Equal pay for women

    & other income-generating opportunities
  • Start of a revisionist framework that wanted to change the stigma of the sacred middle-eastern cities

    The colonial city, the dual city and the divided city were all terms that needed to be changed.
  • Setup of World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)

    Which was aimed at considering possible solutions in environmental issues.
  • Setup grassroots approaches & sustainable development

  • Women as channels of development

  • A move away from state-socialism

    Since the most rapid growth-rates were found in the outward-oriented countries
  • Collapse of the Soviet bloc

    Leaving African socialist countries unable to increase productivity.
  • Post-development ideas

  • Female empowerment

    & including men in gender and development projects
  • More attention to sustainability matters

    Leading to the recovery of important landscapes and the setup of grassroots initiatives.
  • Banning of Philippine logging

    & protection of Sierra Madre mountain range
  • Introduction of gender-related development measures

    Such as GDI and GEM
  • The Asian crisis

    Devaluation of the Thai currency, proving the Asian miracle wrong (= the conception that neoliberalizing a country would lead to economic and social welfare.
  • Setup of Millenium Development Goals

    Were widely accepted, but did not mention the means to achieve the goals.
  • Rise of the Latin-American left

    As a response to existing neoliberalist theories
  • Belt & Road initiative

    Introduced by Xi Jinping as a way for China to stay in contact with European trade and is meant to accelerate economic integration of countries along the road.
  • Setup Sustainable Development Goals

    Many goals have a timespan of 5-15 years
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    European Colonialism

    Creating more linkages between parts of the world, formed the base of many power relations and started the globalization (by sharing cultural practices and economic/political structures).
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    Rise of the 'New world' (Latin-America)

    In which period trading activities between Portugal and the Spanish took place
  • Period: to

    Colonies grew in importance

    Since they became the source of raw materials and markets, having huge importance for the industrial revolution
  • Period: to

    Protectionism arose

    Due to trade being the major force for economic growth, national governments needed protection. Opposed by Adam Smith, who pleaded for divisions of labour.
  • Period: to

    The great trek

    Britians and Dutchmen annexing the Cape and other Northern African countries
  • Period: to

    Industrial revolution

    Before: Resources were seen as inputs to a human-devised system.
    During: The impacts of over-crowding, poverty and health consequences became clear.
  • Period: to

    Rise of sociological thinking

  • Period: to

    Philippine deforestation

    Due to logging companies exporting to Mexico.
  • Period: to

    Leninism

  • Period: to

    Stalinism

  • Period: to

    French settlement in Morocco

    Leading to migration, exploitation of natural resources and exponential growth due to commercial colonialism.
  • Period: to

    The Great Depression

    Exploiting of land and labour
  • Period: to

    The Cold war

    In which the countries that weren't involved, were called Third World Countries because they preferred a third way.
  • Period: to

    Maoism

    Communist regime of Mao Tse-Tung. This attempt at rapid economic growth led to a big famine in '61, after which the economy was re-opened to foreign investment.
  • Period: to

    Rise of socialist approaches

    State-led planning and economy, controlled trade and investment and ownership of industries. Was increasingly mixed with capitalism.
  • Period: to

    The Green Revolution

    Significantly improving yields in lower-income countries, despite the negative effects on nature social structures.
  • Period: to

    Practices of the Neo-liberal theory

    Proposed by Ronald Reagan & Margaret Thatcher. Arose due to the inefficiency of state-involvement and growth rates which seemed to be slowing down.
  • Period: to

    Amorphous urbanism in Jakarta

    Indonesia became more and more urbanized. However, most jobs remained in Jakarta, leading to huge traffic congestions and the construction of superblocks and the increase in slums.
  • Period: to

    Neo-keynesian approaches

    Resulted from the debt crisis in the 80s, leading to protectionist measures again.
  • Period: to

    Popularity of the decentralized approach

    Part of the neoliberal agenda. Supposedly efficient for economic, as well as political reasons. Proved to be leading to regional inequalities.
  • Period: to

    Popularity of NGOs

    Grew rapid in the last decennia, due to the availability of funding, but also the lack of alternative support mechanisms.