Creation/Dissolution of Political Parties and Sources of Support

  • Creatation of the Federalist Party

    Creatation of the Federalist Party
    Federaism was born in 1787 when Alexander Hamilton and John Jay wrote numerous essays collectively known as the Federalist papers. These papers encouraged Americans to adopt the new Constitution, but to interpret it loosely. Federalism was supported strongly by the wealthy in the Northeast. Both George Washington and John Adams were Federalist presidents. Today, Alexander Hamilton is known as the father of teh Federalist Party.
  • Ideas of Federalism

    Ideas of Federalism
    Federalists wanted stong central government, close ties with Britain, and found a great importance for the economy to focus on manufacturing and commerce. Federalism wanted to ensure order and stability to the people through a strong federal government. The party also believed that the creation of a national bank was necessary in order to regulate and stabilize the economy. This would later be proposed to Congress by Alexander Hamilton, but it would be vetoed by Washington.
  • Creation of the Democratic-Republicans

    Creation of the Democratic-Republicans
    The Democratic-Republicans, also known as the Jeffersonians, were created in opposition to the Federalist Party. This party's ideas often contradicted those of the Federalists. They were supported by Southerners and Westerners, along with farmers and the less wealthy. Some democratic-republican presidents were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
  • Ideas of the Democratic-Republican Party

    Ideas of the Democratic-Republican Party
    The Democratic Republicans believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution and did not believe that the National Bank was necessary, but could be desirable. This party wanted an agriculture-based economy and rural life, which explains why their main supporters were from the South and West. Additionally, they wanted strong state governments , because they wanted to put trust in the people and support civil liberties, and wanted closer ties with France than their mother country, Britain.
  • Dissolution of the Federalist Party

    Dissolution of the Federalist Party
    The Federalist Party died out after the Hartford Convention following the War of 1812. The ruin of this party was a result of the expense of fighting alongside Britain in an undeclared war with France, contempt for the less wealth and poor, and in the end overall unpopularity.
  • The Era of Good Feelings

    The Era of Good Feelings
    The Era of Good Feelings was a time period from 1816-1824 that consisted of only one political party, the democratic-republicans. This period was during the administration of President James Monroe. The Era of Good Feelings started after the Americans claimed victory in the War of 1812. Due to the victory over British invaders national pride and spirit swelled. In the election of 1820, Monroe was re-elected almost unanimously.
  • Emergence of the Second Party System

    Emergence of the Second Party System
    The Second Party System started during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. This system consisted of the Whigs which was a party that carried on many Federalist traditions and values. Along witht the Whigs the system also contained the Jacksonian-Democrats who wanted to carry out many of the wishes of the Jeffersonians.
  • Creation of the Democrats

    Creation of the Democrats
    The Democrats found importance in traditional values, and liked to remember the past. This party disliked banks and corporations that were ran by state-legislation. They also opposed state-government reforms and believed in the decision of the individual. Jacksonian Democracy favored farms and rural liberties ,and also approved of the right to own slaves. The Democrats wanted fast expansion to the West, and was favored in the South.
  • Creation of the Whigs

    Creation of the Whigs
    The Whig Party believed in modernization of America, and was constantly looking towards the future. They believed that they could use the federal government and state governments to promote economic growth, transportation, and banks. They wanted to expand westward, though they opposed the Mexican War. While expansion was necessary, they wanted the change to be gradual. The Whigs believed in reforms such as temperance, public school, and prison reform.
  • Creation of the Whigs Part Deux

    Creation of the Whigs Part Deux
    Whigs were businessmen who believed in industry, urban growth, and free labor. Whig ideas of urbanization, industrialization, federal rights, and expansion of trades and commerce were favored in the North. This party spoke to the hopes of the Americans and their dreams of success.
  • Creation of the Free Soil Party

    Creation of the Free Soil Party
    The Free Soil Party, while not abolitionist, did not support the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories to the west, and wanted more "free soil." Martin Van Buren won 10% of the popular vote in a presidential election. However, in 1852, this party lost half of its support because they did not approve of the Compromise of 1850. In 1854, this party was absorbed into the Republican Party.
  • Creation of the Liberty Party

    Creation of the Liberty Party
    One of the parties created in opposition to post-Jackson Democratic politics. They drew on support from some Whigs. In 1844, James Birney, an abolitionist from the Liberty Party, was a presidential candidate, although he only won 2% of the popular vote. Later, this party was aborbed into the Republican Party.
  • Creation of "Know-Nothing" Party

    Creation of "Know-Nothing" Party
    The American Party, commonly known as the Know-Nothing Party, was established in 1845. This party was against immigration and temperance, and was extremely nativist and nationalist. Millard Fillmore ran on the Know-Nothing Party ticket in the 1856 presidential election, winning 21% of the popular vote. After 1856, this party was aborbed into the Republican Party.
  • The Split of the Whig Party

    The Split of the Whig Party
    In 1850, the Whig Party was split over the issue of slavery. "Cotton" Whigs from the South eventually became part of the Democratic Party, and wanted slavery because they were from the South. "Conscience" Whigs, from the North, opposed slavery, and moved to new parties such as the Free Soil Party, and later became part of the Republican Party.
  • Creation of the Republican Party

    Creation of the Republican Party
    This party was created by a combination of independent Democrats, Free Soil party members, and "Conscience" Northern Whigs that all opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which promoted popular sovereignty to decide whether they would be slave or free states. They opposed slavery on moral grounds, while accepting that slavery could exist where it was Constitutionally allowed to. John Fremont of the Republican party was the first presidential candidate from his party, and ran in the election of 1856.
  • Republicans in the Election of 1860

    Republicans in the Election of 1860
    By 1860, Republicans were strongly opposed to slavery. The party favored a homestead act, a protective tariff, and more transportation improvements. The platform for the republicans opposed any extension of slavery, yet defended states rights of controlling their own "domestic institutions." Abraham Lincol was the presidencial candidate for the Republicans in the Election of 1860.
  • The Democrats in the Election of 1860

    The Democrats in the Election of 1860
    At the 1860 Democratic Convention in Charleston, SC, the Democratic Party split because a platform defending slavery was defeated and delegates from the Deep South left. At a later convention in Baltimore, MD, Stephen Douglas from Illinois was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate opposing any Congressional intervention with slavery. Southern delegates nominated John Breckenridge of Kentucky as a candidate with a pro-slavery platform.
  • Split in the Republican Party - Stalwarts and Half-Breeds

    Split in the Republican Party - Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
    During the 1870's and 1880's, there was a split in the Republican Party, into two groups called the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds. The Stalwarts were led by Roscoe Conkling, who believed in the system of participating in civil service jobs for votes. The Half-Breeds were led by James G. Blaine. They half-heartedly believed in civil service reform, but were more concerned about the issue of the spoils system and who would "dish out the spoils."
  • The Liberal Republican Revolt

    The Liberal Republican Revolt
    Disgust with Grantism began throughout the country. The reform-minded citizens came together to form the Liberal Republican Party. They wanted purification of the Washington Administration and an end to the military reconstruction. The Party nominated Horace Greeley for presidency whom the Democrats also approved of. Although it was a surprising choice it benefited this party because he wanted the North and South to come together and end Reconstruction. In the end it was Grant who won.
  • Creation of the Greenback Labor Party

    Creation of the Greenback Labor Party
    Republicans had a hard-money policy, and they did not believe in using "greenbacks," or paper money that was backed up by gold. During the Panic of 1873, a "contraction" occurred, and there was a reduction of the greenbacks in circulation to improve the government's credit rating and give paper money more value. The Greenback Labor Party was created by "soft-money" advocates, and fourteen spaces in Congress were filled by Greenback Labor Party members.
  • Mugwumps

    In the 1884 election Democrats chose Grover Cleveland as their presidential candidate. Republicans chose James G. Blaine as their candidate. Some Republicans were unable to accept this candidate and therefore switched to the Democratic Party. These people who switched from the Republican to the Democratic part were called mugwumps.
  • Creation of the People's Party (otherwise known as the Populist Party)

    Creation of the People's Party (otherwise known as the Populist Party)
    This party was created through the election of members of the Farmer's Alliance as politicians. The People's Party was anti-elitist and disliked the railroad companies. It focused on the needs of farmers during this time period, because they faced oppression. It strived for a graduated income tax and low tariffs, and promoted usage of silver money as well as gold money, which would help the farmers during economic turmoil.
  • Creation of the Progressive Party

    Creation of the Progressive Party
    The Progressive Party was a political party that supported a series of progressive reforms to change social and economic aspects of American society. It was formed with influence from both the Greenback Labor Party and the Populists. The Progressive Party sought to reform working conditions, food and health expectations, and corrupt politics, along with other movements.
  • Fourth Party in the Election of 1912

    Fourth Party in the Election of 1912
    In the election of 1912 Eugene V Debs was the fourth party candidate in the election. The ticket Debs was running under in the election was the Socialist Party. Against him were William Taft (Republican), Woodrow Wilson (Democrat), and Theodore Roosevelt (Bull Moose Party). It was in the election of 1912 that Eugene Debs recieved over 900,000 in popular votes which was more than any other fourth party had ever recieved and therefore significant to the Socialist Party.
  • Teddy Roosevelt Runs on the "Bull Moose" Ticket

    Teddy Roosevelt Runs on the "Bull Moose" Ticket
    Theodore Roosevelt said on October 14, 1912, after he was almost assassinated, " takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose." In this election, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive Party's ticket, which came to be known as the Bull Moose Party. Although Roosevelt did not win, his running in this election signified that the Progressive Party was a political party to be taken seriously, and Theodore Roosevelt participated in reform movements to help the cause of his party.
  • Antiwar Socialists During World War I

    Antiwar Socialists During World War I
    The Espionage Act showed the American fear of Germans and other threats during the First World War. Anitwar Socialists were often prosecuted throughout the war. Socialist Eugene V. Debs was arrested after making a speech in 1918 in Canton, Ohio that was against the war. The speech that was made violated the Espionage Act which said that any "anitwar activity" was unlawful. Debs was convicted and sentenced to prison for 10 years due to his violation of the act.
  • Election of 1924

    Election of 1924
    Although Calvin Coolidge won the election easily, Robert LaFollette of the Progressive Party ran as the third party candidate. La Follette received support and endorsement from the American Federation of Labor and also from the Socialist party, whose power was diminishing quickly due to economic success. Before the economic boom, Socialism seemed like a very appealing option for the poor and oppressed, because the goal of the Socialist party was to make every aspect of life as equal as possible.
  • Election of 1932 - African-Americans Vote Democratic

    Election of 1932 - African-Americans Vote Democratic
    Herbert Hoover was replaced in 1932 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who received a much larger portion of the Americans' votes than Hoover. Before this election, most African Americans voted Republican, and were even restricted from voting Democratic until 1924. FDR received about 70% of the African American vote, signifying a change in support from this minority.
  • The American Liberty League

    The American Liberty League
    During the Great Depression in the 1930's, FDR created many agencies and acts to improve the economy, decrease unemployment, and help the Americans get through these hard times. However, some people, mostly those who were wealthy, thought these agencies promoted Socialism, so the American Liberty League was formed. Containing both conservative Democrats and wealthy Republicans, this league fought against the Socialist ideals of FDR's New Deal.
  • FDR Breaks Two-Term Tradition

    FDR Breaks Two-Term Tradition
    The Republican candidate in the election of 1940 was newcomer Wendell L. Willkie. Willkie would be running against Franklin D. Roosevelt who chose to run and challege the two-term tradition. The Democrats believed that FDR was the best choice for candidate due to the current situation: a possible chance of war. While FDR and Willkie had similar foreign policies, FDR won and broke the two-term tradtion because voters believed that FDR was the best man to lead America should war come.
  • Democratic Divisions in 1948

    Democratic Divisions  in 1948
    Republicans won control over the House in 1946 and nominated Thomas E. Dewey to the 1948 ticket. Democrats were foced to choose Truman again for the Democratic ticket when war hero Dwight D. Eishenhower refused to be chosen. The nomination of Truman split the Democratic Party. Southern Democrats, also known as the Dixiecrats, nominated J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina to the State's Rights party ticket. Former Vice President Henry A. Wallace was also nominated by the new Progressive Party.
  • Election of 1948

    Election of 1948
    During this election the Democrats were disorganized and it seemed that Dewey would be bound to win the election easily. With the Chicago Tribune running a story early on election night stating that Dewey defeated Truman. In fact, Truman defeated Dewey gaining large support from farmers, workers, and blacks. Truman recieved 303 Electoral voted over Dewey's 189 in the election. Due to the outcome of the 1948 election the Democrats won control of Congress.
  • The American Independence Party

    The American Independence Party
    The American Independence Party is a right-wing political party which could also be known as the George Wallace Party. The American Independence Party was the third party involved in the Election of 1968. The party nominated George C. Wallace for the presidential ticket and retired Air Force General Curtis E. LeMay for vice president. Wallace, the former govenor of Alabama, was pro-segregation and wanted to bomb the Vietnamese.
  • 1968 Democratic National Convention

    1968 Democratic National Convention
    The 1968 Democratic National Convention, held in Chicago, had a significant amount of protest activity. The Youth International Party was one of the major groups that protested for eight days outside the Democratic Convention. Students were rioting claiming that the average American did not have control over the political progress of the country. One of the major protests by students was against the current war, the Vietnam War. Chicage Police were called in to attempt to maintain peace.