# computer science

Timeline created by 1006675
• 1,300 BCE

# Abacus

An ancient calculating tool used by near east, china , and Russia. Was invented by the Chinese and originated there. The full name is - Abundant Beads, Addition and Calculation Utility System.
• # Napier’s Bones (John Napier)

Napier's bones is a manually operated calculation system. System was based of lattice multiplication system. To make this you need 10 strips of paper each divided into 9 parts. in each strip a slated line separates the ten digits from the unit digits.
• # Slide Rule (William Oughtred)

Two logarithmic scales that slide. These are able to perform tasks like direct multiplication and division. With this invention also came the multiplication sign "x".
• # Stepped Reckoner (Gottfried Leibniz)

Invented by German mathematicians, was the first calculator to be able to truly perform all four arithmetic calculators. Need to be made with great precision to work correctly due to all of the small moving parts.
• # Difference and Analytical Engines (Charles Babbage)

Two different classes of engines. Difference engines get there name from the mathematical principles that is follows. Analytical engines are mechanically powered for mathematicians and computer pioneers.
• # Pascaline (Blaise Paxcal)

Was able to do addition subtraction as well as multiplication and division by repeated addition and subtraction. This was built by blaise pascaline for his fathers tax business.
• # Jacquard Loom (Joseph-Marie Jacquard)

Invented a loom that was the base model for programmable machines. Used some of the earliest programming technology.

An English mathematician who invented of analytical engines. Was the first person to realize that these machines had more potential than pure calculations.
• # Scheutzian Calculation Engine (Per Georg Scheutz)

This engine was an improved difference engine. This was about the size of a piano. Was sold to the British government in 1859 and another sold in 1860 to the United States.
• # Arithmometer (Thomas de Colmar)

Was a strong reliable system used in office environments. Could perform addiction subtraction, long multiplication and division by using movable accumulators.
• # Tabulating Machine (Herman Hollerith)

This was used to summarize information on a punched class. Helped process information for the 1890 census, And was later used for accounting and inventory control.

A motor driven mechanical computer. He built the binary electrical driven machine in his parents home. It has limited programability and can read instructions from punched celluloid film.
• # Havard Mark 1 (Howard Aiken)

Was used towards the end of WW2. It was an electromechanical computer and the first program was run mach 29 1944
• # EDVAC (John von Neumann)

Unlike other similar inventors the EDVAC was binary instead of decimal and was designed to be a store programmed computer.
• # The transistor (Shockley, et al)

This invention was a very important part of the 1900s. This machine could pick up small weak electrical signals and restrengthen them. This resulted in the signals being able to reach much farther than before.
• # ENIAC (Eckert & Mauchly)

Was designed for commercial and military uses. was originally called Electric control company in the 1946 and was sold in 1950.
• # UNIVAC 1(Eckert & Mauchly)

First computer designed for robotic applications. Before this successful model Univac 1 it was just called Univac.
• # Computer Chip (Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce)

This invention was the start to modern technology and was key factors in modern day calculators and computer being able to be made much smaller. This invention leads to a spike in hand held tech.
• # The mouse (Douglas Engelbart)

Early mice used wheels that would move horizontally and vertically. the computer was programmed to sense these movements and move the cursor accordingly.
• # The floppy disk (Alan Shugart)

This was the first type of disc storage composed of thin material giving it the name floppy disc. The first discs were 8 inches then 5 1/4 the 3 1/2.
• # Apple II (Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak)

The first apple computer launched and Wozniak launched apple 11 which put apple as a big part in microcomputers.

Was launched as a micro computer and is now named "model 1". Was sold massively at radio shacks. Was a big step for future computers.
• # Ethernet (Robert Metcalfe)

Is used to connect thing to computers and have a stable connection. used in businesses or at home inst viable for long range connections. One of the key technologies that helped create internet.
• # IBM Acorn

Was a micro computer that had 12 engineers working on it. Was renamed IBM PC. Was one of the first computers with personal uses in mind.
• # Molecular Informatics (DARPA)

This is a peer reviewed journal that helps researched to find almost anything needed. This has been helpful and impactful for years and will continue to be for years to come.
• # Microsoft Windows

A group of graphical operating systems all of which are designed and sold by Microsoft. Then there are many different window families that all branch from each other.
• # Mac OS X

It use was for upgrading apple computers. Was also the main operating system for there computers. Is now used in some way for all of there products.
• # iPhone

Since release date with new models and software there have been 2.3 billion sold. Newer models begin more powerful than that of the computer that took us to the moon, This invention was s turning point in society and technology.
• # Chromebook

Is a commonly used laptop running chrome OS. These are basic laptop that do what needs to be done. They arent special but there are well rounded and easy.