Comparative Timeline

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    Colonial Era Begins

    British colonial expansion in the Americas lasted from 1585 to 1776. The first attempt by the British to colonize North America began with the Roanoke Colony in 1585. The Roanoke Colony failed, but was followed up by Jamestown in 1607. Jamestown, Virginia became the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
  • U.S. History: 1619: Jamestown

    U.S. History: 1619: Jamestown
    The first African slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619 aboard a Dutch ship called the White Lion. They were sold to the colonists as indentured servants in exchange for food and supplies. Jamestown was established around 13 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
  • GA History: Georgia 1st Colony

    GA History: Georgia 1st Colony
    The new colony was named Georgia after King George II. Oglethorpe wanted it to be different from the rest of the English colonies in America. He didn't want the colony to be dominated by large wealthy plantation owners who owned hundreds of slaves. He envisioned a colony that would be settled by debtors and the unemployed. They would own and work on small farms. He had laws passed that banned slavery, limited land ownership to 50 acres and outlawed hard liquor.
  • U.S. History: The Proclamation of 1763

    U.S. History: The Proclamation of 1763
    The Treaty of Paris, which ended the French and Indian War, granted Britain a great deal of valuable North American land. But the new land also created many problems.
    The solution was The Proclamation of 1763, which declared boundaries of settlement for inhabitants of the 13 colonies to be the Appalachians.
  • Ga History: 1773 the Treaty of Augusta,

     Ga History: 1773 the Treaty of Augusta,
    The 3rd Royal Governor, James Wright of Georgia negotiated with the Creek Indians for more land in 1763. Treaty increased the land size of Georgia
  • U.S. History: Boston Tea Party

    U.S. History: Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was one of the key events leading up to the American Revolution. It was a protest by the American Colonists against the British government. They staged the protest by boarding three trade ships in Boston Harbor and throwing the ships' cargo of tea overboard into the ocean.
  • GA History: Georgia's Second Provincial Congress

    GA History: Georgia's Second Provincial Congress
    On July 4, 1775, revolutionary Georgians held a Provincial Congress to decide how to respond to the American Revolution, and that congress decided on July 8 to send delegates to the Continental Congress.
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    American Revolution

    When the British colonists in America rebelled against the rule of Great Britain. There were many battles fought and the colonies gained their freedom and became the independent country of the United States.
  • US History: Declaration of Independence

    US History: Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence did more than just say the colonies wanted their freedom. It explained why they wanted their freedom. It listed all the bad things that the king had done to the colonies and that the colonies had rights which they felt they should fight for.
  • GA History: British Evacuate Savannah

     GA History: British Evacuate Savannah
    British Royal Governor Sir James Wright, along with several civil officials and military officers, flee the city of Savannah, Georgia, and head to Charleston, South Carolina. As part of the British evacuation, a group consisting of British regulars led by General Alured Clarke traveled to New York, while Colonel Thomas Brown led a mixed group of rangers and Indians to St. Augustine, Florida.
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    Antebellum Era

    the antebellum period refers to the years after the War of 1812 (1812–15) and before the Civil War (1861–65).
  • GA History: Gold Rush

    GA History: Gold Rush
    The largest quantities of gold found in the eastern United States were found in the Georgia Gold Belt, extending from eastern Alabama to Rabun County, Georgia. The biggest concentration of gold was found in White, Lumpkin, and northern Cherokee counties in Georgia
  • US History: Trail of Tears

    US History: Trail of Tears
    The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress in 1830. The actual removal of the Native American tribes from the South took several years.
  • US History: Dred Scott v. Sandford

    US History: Dred Scott v. Sandford
    This ruling said that all African Americans, both slaves and free, were not legal citizens of the United States. This meant that they could not sue in federal court. It came about when a slave named Dred Scott tried to sue for his freedom when his owner moved him to a free state and then back to a slave state. The Fourteenth Amendment turned this decision around. Today, Dred Scott v. Sandford is considered by many to be one of the worst rulings in the history of the Supreme Court.
  • GA History: Secession

    GA History: Secession
    The Southern states were worried that as the United States expanded, they would gain less power. They wanted the states to have more power and be able to make their own laws. One of the laws they were worried about losing was the right to have slaves. Many northern states had outlawed slavery and they were worried that the United States would outlaw slavery in all the states.
  • US History: Battle of Fort Sumter

    US History: Battle of Fort Sumter
    The South bombarded Fort Sumter from all sides. There were several forts surrounding Charleston Harbor that allowed the Southern forces to easily bombard Sumter. After many hours of bombardment, Anderson realized that he had no chance to win the battle. He was almost out of food and ammunition and his forces were badly outnumbered. He surrendered the fort to the Southern Army.
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    The Civil war

    The American Civil War was fought between the southern and northern states of the United States. The southern states didn't want to be part of the United States anymore and decided to make their own country. However, the northern states wanted to stay one country.
  • GA History: Siege of Fort Pulaski

    GA History: Siege of Fort Pulaski
    Union forces on Tybee Island and naval operations conducted a 112-day siege, then captured Fort Pulaski after a 30-hour bombardment. The battle is important for the innovative use of rifled guns, which made existing coastal defenses obsolete.
  • US History: Emancipation Proclamation

    US History: Emancipation Proclamation
    President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation announcing the freedom of slaves from the Confederate States.
  • GA History: Sherman's March to Sea

    GA History: Sherman's March to Sea
    General Sherman's march through the state of Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah was one of the most devastating blows to the South in the American Civil War. Not only did he take control of Atlanta, a major railroad hub, and Savannah, a major seaport, but he laid the land between Atlanta and Savannah to waste, destroying all that was in his path.
  • US History: Freedmen's Bureau Established

    US History: Freedmen's Bureau Established
    Congress passed “An Act to establish a Bureau for the Relief of Freedmen and Refugees” to provide food, shelter, clothing, medical services, and land to displaced Southerners, including newly freed African Americans.
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    Reconstruction Era

    Period of time after the Civil War, where the United States worked through integrating the Confederate States back into the Union and initiated many important civil rights for African Americans.
  • US History: New South

    US History: New South
    Georgia native Henry Grady coins the idea of a New South, moving forward in anti-slavery sentiment and pursuit of industrialization.
  • US History: Fourteenth Amendmen

    US History: Fourteenth Amendmen
    The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States—including formerly enslaved people—and guaranteed all citizens “equal protection of the laws.
  • GA History: Readmission to the Union

    GA History: Readmission to the Union
    Georgia became the last former Confederate state to be readmitted into the Union after agreeing to seat some black members in the state Legislature
  • GA History: Convict Lease System Established

    GA History: Convict Lease System Established
    In Georgia, convict leasing began when Union General and newly appointed provisional governor Thomas H. Ruger issued a convict lease for prisoners to William Fort for work on the Georgia and Alabama Railroad.
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    Jim Crow Era

    Following Emancipation and Reconstruction, Jim Crow was a period of laws that forced racial segregation for African Americans.
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    Gilded Age

    period of gross materialism and blatant political corruption in U.S. history during the 1870s that gave rise to important novels of social and political criticism.
  • GA History: International Cotton Exposition

    GA History: International Cotton Exposition
    to promote investment and to help the city toward its goal of becoming an industrial center, which was a primary component of Grady's “New South” concept.
  • GA History: Atlanta Compromise Speech

    GA History: Atlanta Compromise Speech
    Booker T. Washington was selected to give a speech that would open the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. The first speech given by an African American to a racially-mixed audience in the South.
  • US History: Plessy vs. Ferguson

    US History: Plessy vs. Ferguson
    Plessy v. Ferguson was important because it essentially established the constitutionality of racial segregation. As a controlling legal precedent, it prevented constitutional challenges to racial segregation for more than half a century until it was finally overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court
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    Progressive Era

    period of widespread social activism and political reform
  • GA History: Atlanta Race Riot

    GA History: Atlanta Race Riot
    Violent attacks by armed mobs of White Americans against African Americans in Atlanta, Georgia began on the evening of September 22, 1906, and lasted through September 24
  • GA History: Disenfranchisement of African Americans

    GA History: Disenfranchisement of African Americans
    Literacy and understanding tests as a requirement for African Americans to be able to vote. Georgia voters approved this disenfranchisement, ending African Americans' ability to participate in their freedom to vote.
  • US History: NAACP Formed

    US History: NAACP Formed
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), interracial American organization created to work for the abolition of segregation and discrimination in housing, education, employment, voting, and transportation; to oppose racism; and to ensure African Americans their constitutional rights
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    World War I

    A global war beginning in Europe, pitting Central Powers against Allies, and ending with the Treaty of Versaille.
  • GA History: Great Migration

    GA History: Great Migration
    The Great Migration was the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from about 1916 to 1970.
  • US History: US Declares War on Germany

    US History: US Declares War on Germany
    President Woodrow Wilson went before a joint session of Congress to request a declaration of war against Germany. ... Germany's resumption of submarine attacks on passenger and merchant ships in 1917 became the primary motivation
  • US History: Red Summer

    US History: Red Summer
    Between April and November, there would be approximately 25 riots and instances of mob violence, 97 recorded lynchings, and a three day long massacre in Elaine, Arkansas during which over 200 black men, women, and children were killed after black sharecroppers tried to organize for better working conditions.
  • GA History: Race Riot of Millen

    GA History: Race Riot of Millen
    As with many of the riots that took place, blame was shifted to blacks and ended with violence. This event is significant to the string of riots that would take place across the states, enlisting the support of returned African American army veterans.
  • US History: Nineteenth Amendment

    US History: Nineteenth Amendment
    The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the United States and its states from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex, in effect recognizing the right of women to a vote.
  • GA History: Warm Springs Foundation

     GA History: Warm Springs Foundation
    Upon his inauguration as president, in 1933, Roosevelt held a special interest in turning Georgia around from the effects of the Great Depression. This event is significant to the fact that it began a relationship that would benefit years ahead.
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    Great Depression

    the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939.
  • GA History: Eugene Talmadge, Governor

    GA History: Eugene Talmadge, Governor
    Eugene Talmadge opposed the New Deal programs and stated they were threatening "Georgia's way of life." He specifically opposed the minimum wage requirements. He opposed Social Security for Georgians and called Roosevelt a Socialist.
  • US History: Franklin D. Roosevelt as President

    US History: Franklin D. Roosevelt as President
    He took office in the midst of the Great Depression and during the first 100 days of the 73rd U.S. Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief, recovery, and reform.
  • US History: New Deal

    US History: New Deal
    was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939.
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    World War II

    the global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers.
  • US History: Pearl Harbor

    US History: Pearl Harbor
    Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to prevent the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and those of the United States.
  • GA History: Bell Bomber Plant

    GA History: Bell Bomber Plant
    The government-owned plant closed immediately after the end of World War II and sat idle until 1951, when it became home to Lockheed-Georgia (later Lockheed Martin). The Bell-trained managers and laborers proved that southerners were capable of sophisticated and meticulous industrial work.
  • GA History: Center for Disease Control

    GA History: Center for Disease Control
    On July 1, 1946 the Communicable Disease Center (CDC) opened its doors and occupied one floor of a small building in Atlanta. Its primary mission was simple yet highly challenging: prevent malaria from spreading across the nation.
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    Civil Rights Movement

    The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and 1960s for Black Americans to gain equal rights under the law in the United States
  • US History: Brown vs. Board of Education

    US History: Brown vs. Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education marked a turning point in the history of race relations in the United States. On May 17, 1954, the Court stripped away constitutional sanctions for segregation by race, and made equal opportunity in education the law of the land.
  • US History: Montgomery Bus Boycott

     US History: Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery bus boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on public transportation after Rosa Parks.
  • GA History: The Magnolia Room Sit-In

    GA History: The Magnolia Room Sit-In
    Dissatisfied with the city's slow pace of change, student leaders Lonnie King and Julian Bond proposed waging a sit-in campaign to compel the integration of area lunch counters, and they began recruiting like-minded classmates to support the cause.
  • GA History: Atlanta Nine

    Georgia was able to participate in the desegregation process of public schools soon after the Brown vs. BOE decision was made. Nine African American high schoolers enrolled in 4 white high schools, with minimal peaceful protests. This event is significant to the positive change in civil rights that would start sweeping the South.
  • GA History: Albany Movement

    GA History: Albany Movement
    aimed to end all forms of racial segregation in the city, focusing initially on desegregating travel facilities, forming a permanent biracial committee to discuss further desegregation, and the release of those jailed in segregation protests.
  • GA History: Carl Sanders, Governor

    GA History: Carl Sanders, Governor
    a young Democratic governor of Georgia in the mid-1960s helped spur Atlanta’s growth while taking what for a white politician in the South were progressive stances on race and segregation, earning him a reputation as an early leader of the “New South,”
  • US History: Gray vs. Sanders

    US History: Gray vs. Sanders
    was a Supreme Court of the United States case dealing with equal representation in regard to the American election system and formulated the famous "one person, one vote" standard applied in this case for "counting votes in a Democratic primary election
  • US History: Voting Rights Act of 1965

    signed into law on August 6, 1965, by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting.
  • US History: Smallpox

    US History: Smallpox
    The 33rd World wealth Assembly officially declared the world free of smallpox after the last stint of cases in the late 60s. Eradication of smallpox is considered the biggest achievement in international public health
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    Modern Georgia

    The shaping and development of modern society within the realm of social, technological, economical, and political issues of the time.
  • GA History: Sonny Perdue, Governor

    GA History: Sonny Perdue, Governor
    For the first time since Reconstruction, Georgia elected a Republican governor in Sonny Perdue. Given Georgia's 100-year reign of the Democratic Party, this event is significant to the shift towards conservative politics.
  • US History: Barack Obama, President

    US History: Barack Obama, President
    He was the first African American in history to be nominated on a major party ticket. On November 4, 2008, Obama defeated the Republican nominee, Senator John McCain of Arizona, making him the President-elect and the first African American elected President.
  • US History: Donald Trump President

    US History: Donald Trump President
    he became the first person without government or military experience ever to be elected president of the United States.
  • GA History: Brian Kemp, GA Governor

    GA History: Brian Kemp, GA Governor
    an American businessman and politician serving as the 83rd governor of the State of Georgia since January 2019. A Republican, he previously was the 27th Secretary of State of Georgia from 2010 to 2018 and a member of the Georgia State Senate from 2003 until 2007.
  • US History: COVID 19

    US History: COVID 19
    COVID-19 began spreading in Wuhan, China, it became an epidemic. Because the disease then spread across several countries and affected a large number of people.
  • US History: Kamala Harris

    US History: Kamala Harris
    1st Woman Vice president