Ga map

The History of Georgia, by Madhurya Gajula

  • Jan 1, 1540

    Hernando De Soto explores Georgia

    Hernando De Soto explores Georgia
    Hernando DeSoto came to the New World in search of gold. For his expedition, DeSoto brought about 600 men, a few hundred animals (horses, wardogs, pigs), diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and whooping cough), weaponry (plated armor and guns) when entering Tampa, Florida. They headed north from there, reaching present-day Albany,GA. Although their main goal was to find gold, they were unsuccessful and most of them, including DeSoto, died here in New World.
  • Jan 1, 1566

    Spanish Missions on the Barrier Islands

    Spanish Missions on the Barrier Islands
    The Spanish established missions (a religious church or station established in a foreign land to allow missionaries to spread their religion) throughout the Barrier Islands and the coastal regions of Georgia. For example, missions were mainly located on St. Simons's Island and St. Catherine's Island. The two main reasons the Spanish set up mission in the New World were to spread the Catholic faith and to protect their claim in the New World. The missions were used as trading posts as well.
  • Virginia Colony established (mercantilism)

    Virginia Colony established (mercantilism)
    The British built colonies to increase mercantilism (an economic belief that if a country exports more than it imports, then its wealth will improve) . To them at the time, mercantilism was the way to success of a country's economy (they were right). By building colonies, they could have the colonists make raw materials and ship them to their motherland. Then, Britain would process them into goods and ship them all over the world for double or triple the price they paid the colonists.
  • Jamestown Colony established

    Jamestown was the first English settlement in the New World. The colony, named after King George II, faced lots of troubles. Since the colony was located near swamps, malaria took many citizens' lives. The colonists came too late to cultivate any plants, which resulted in a scarcity of food. All these conflicts left the colony with few settlers, but in the end Jamestown prospered into the one of the largest colonies of the 13 colonies with the discovery of tobacco growth.
  • Fort King George Built

    Fort King George was built as a political buffer between the colonies claimed by England and Spanish colonies in St. Augustine. A garrison (a fort where troops are housed) was finished in 1721. It provided as a warning point for other countries who may have wanted to colonize the area. Indian raids, swampy conditions, and sickness caused the fort to be abandoned in 1727.
  • Georgia Colony founded with Charter of 1732, beginning Trustee Period

    The Georgia colony was founded by James E. Oglethorpe, an English man dedicated to creating a land for the poor debtors and other jailers with his group of 20 other trustees. In order to have this new colony created, Oglethorpe needed the King's permission, so he wrote the Charter for Georgia to be created. The King approved the Charter with many regulations. The main points the Trustees used to convince were a) political buffer and b) increase in production of raw materials.
  • War of Jenkin's Ear

    This war was between England and Spain, whose territories shared boundaries. It has earned this name supposedly because several years earlier, Spanish sailors were said to have cut off Robert Jenkin's ear. The English had about 2000 men (settlers and Native Americans). Over the next 2 years, there were many small attacks with neither side gaining much land. Then Oglethorpe played a trick on the Spanish making them think they were outnumbered. The Spanish deserted for good shortly after.
  • The Battle of Bloody Marsh

    The battle was the turning point of the War of Jenkin's Ear. It symbolized the victory of Georgia as well as "safe southern frontier for the British". After this, Britain wouldn't have to worry about Spanish threats from Florida.The battle was fought between the St. Simons lighthouse and Fort Frederica (present-day locations). The battle wasn't bloody or big at all, but it is called so.
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    French and Indian War

    This war was the result of disputes between GB and France, and was caused by greed and fear (greed for land and treasure; fear for other country becoming more powerful). Both countries decided to claim the Ohio River Valley, and the French built forts here while colonists got a land grant to settle here. The colonists got angry and VA governor send G. Washington to tell French to get out (this started the war). The Treaty of Paris ended the war and GA's western border was changed to the MI river
  • Stamp Act

    THis was an attempt to raise money to pay for the French and Indian War. This act placed a tax on newspa- pers, legal documents, and licenses. The Liberty Boys were a part of the Sons of Liberty and clearly opposed the act. Georgia was the only colony to actually sell the stamps, but had to stop printing its only newpaper (The GA Gazette). It was repealed after a year.
  • Townshend Acts

    This Act placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paints. Noble Wimberly Jones protested against the Townshend Acts.
  • Boston Massacre

    THe Boston Massacre was a fight between the Patriots adn the Britsih soldiers. The Redcoats shot and the Patriots threw snowballs, and 5 people were killed. Paul Revere, a part of the Sons of Liberty, decided to use this event as propaganda when the colonies decided to seperate from GB.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    The Battle of Lexington and Concord was the first battle of the Revoultionary War. It took months for the information of the first battle to reach GA.
  • Declaration of Independence

    The Decl. of Indep. approved by the Second Continental Congress 1 year after the Battle of Lexington and Concord. It was officially signed on Aug. 2, 1776. Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton were the reps from GA. The document united all the colonies and showed that the colonists were ready for war.
  • Intolerable Acts

    The Intolerable/Coercive Acts were created as a punishment for the Boston Tea Party. It had the following effects:
    1) closed Boston Harbor
    2) MA charter was cancelled
    3) British officials accused of crimes were tried in GB
    4) British troops were to be fed and housed at colonists' expense aka Quartering Act
  • Battle of Kettle Creek

    The Battle of Kettle Creek was led by Elijah Clarke. It wasn't very important except for the fact that the militia won against 800 British troops and got weapons and horses from the British soldiers. It was also a morale boost for the militia and the colonists.
  • Siege of Savannah

    The siege took place at Tybee Island. 19,000 American/French soldiers attacked British positions on Oct. 9, and led a failed attack that lasted for 45 minutes. 1,000 militia men were dead and Savannah remained in British hands until the end of the war.
  • Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation were the first gov't of the United States, although they didn't consider themselves united. There was too much power in the regional gov't (states) and not enough for the central gov't (to avoid tyranny). Weaknesses: no national executive; no court system; all changes needed to be approved unanimously; no power to collect taxes; no power to raise national army; no power to make single currency; difficult to change laws
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Georgia’s militia was led by Colonel Clarke. Augusta was captured. General George Washington, the commander of the Continental Army, was helped by French forces when he faced British General Lord Cornwallis in October 1781. Americans won and Cornwallis surrendered. There was a ship sent by British to help Corn. but French stalled them, helping Americans win the battle.
  • Treaty of Paris signed

    The Treaty was signed by Great Britain, France, and the United States. It proved that the colonists were now free and marked the end of the Revoultionary War.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    American farmers were against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt. They were led by Daniel Shay, a war veteran. The rebellion was most prominent in MA and pushed the Articles of Confederation to be revised/replaced.
  • Ratification of US Constitution

    Nine states had to ratify the document before it could become the official Constitution of the nation. Antifederalists, people against the new Constitution, didn't approve because they were worried the states wouldn't get enough power. Hence the Bill of Rights were created and the first 9 states approved it after 10 months.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney

    Eli Whitney made the machine with wire teeth on a turning cylinder. It separated the cotton from the seeds, but the lint got caught in the wire teeth and stopped up the machine. Several legends say that Mrs. Miller saw the machine’s problem, took a clothes brush, and brushed the lint off the teeth. In any event, before long, he built a factory near Augusta and had a working cotton engine, later shortened to just “gin.”
    It helped farmers seperate 7-8 pounds of cotton a day to 50 pounds of cotton
  • Yazoo Land Fraud

    Land west of Georgia, present day Mississippi and Alabama, was owned by the federal government. Four land companies joined together & made Yazoo Land Company, and took advantage of the land by bribing the General Assembly to pass a law that would allow them to buy & sell this land. The land was sold and a little time passed before the federal government and the people realized that this land was sold illegally. The government reimburshed people who returned the land. Legislatures were voted out.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri was a territory pleaing for statehood in Congress. This would upset the balance of free and slave states in Congress. To resolve this, Maine was added as a free state and Missouri came in as a slave state. The Missouri Compromise line is created. It is a line of latitude that is the southern border of MO; anything above 36' 30" is free (except MO) and everything south is a slave state.
  • Dahlonega Gold Rush starts

    Gold was discovered in the summer of 1829. Although the Cherokee knew there was gold in the hills, the person given credit for the discovery was a farmer named Benjamin Parks. Parks found the valuable yellow metal while deer hunting; nearby Lumpkin County, became the first gold mining center in the United States. Over ten thousand miners moved here.
  • Indian Removal Act

    President Andrew Jackson enforced this act because the land was politically important where the Southeastern Native Americans lived. The bill barely passed with only 14 votes turning it into a bill. The Cochtaw were the first tribe to be moved. The Creek came next. They were deprived of their hunting lands and smallpox took over, killing many. The Cherokee were last. They were sent out because gold was found.
  • Nullification Crisis of 1832

    Some states felt that the could nullify/cancel a Federal law. South Carolina nullified federal tariffs bc they were hurting their cotton industry. South Carolina was so upset they were thinking about seceeding out of the Union. To stop this, President Andrew Jackson marched into South Carolina with troops. Carolinians felt threatened and the SC gov't worked with the federal gov't to lower the tariff. Neither side was fully happy.
  • Compromise of 1850

    California is entering as a free state. The Missouri Compromise Line is somewhat void here bc the state would be cut in half and that wouldn't work. There was lots of conflict over this but the final result yielded the following: a) California enters as a free state
    b) The land from the Mexican Cession is split into Utah and New Mexico; popular sovereignity is used to decide free/slave statehood
    c) The slave trade in Washington DC would end
    d) stricter fugitive law would be passed
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas and Nebraska territories wanted to join statehood. Since the Compromise of 1850 voided the MO Compromise Line, popular sovereignity was used to decide whether they would would be slave/free states. Since it was a vote, ppl decided on both sides decided to bribe, lie, and cheat in order to get more votes. This started violence from border ruffians (ppl from diff states coming in to vote illegally). Abolitionists and pro-slavery ppl fought (Bleeding KS). 200 ppl died; preview of Civil War.
  • Dred Scott Case

    Dred Scott was a slave living in a free territory under a master. His master died so he decided to sue for his freedom; he was paid by abolitionists to do this as they wanted to see if the fed. gov't thought of slavery as an evil or not. The Supreme Court ruled against Scott saying that since slaves were property, he was property and property couldn't sue for its own freedom. This indirectly stated to the abolitionists: slavery isn't restricted; it can exist in all territories.
  • Election of 1860

    Abraham Lincoln runs for President with the newly formed Republican party. His intent was not to be anti-slavery but rather for America to be united as a whole instead of sectionalism; he wished for slavery to be restricted.
    Lincoln wins the election without a landslide. The South is clearly furious with this. South Carolina immediately seceeds as previously they threatened to seceed if Lincoln won. The other states are thinking abt working with him but most seceed anyway into the Confederacy.
  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    -official start of the war
    -located in SC
    -confeds won
    -fort was a part of Confed land
  • Battle of Antietam

    -fought on a bridge (named Antietam) on Union land
    -south led by Lee; north by McClellan
    -confeds wanted to go over bridge and invade; union sends them back
    -both retreat after huge losses of men-- single bloodiest day of war
    -Lincoln called it a union victory so Eman Procl could be released
  • Release of Emancipation Proclamation

    -released 5 days after Antietam by Lincoln even though battle was tied
    -Lincoln wanted the Confederate states to end the war, return to the Union, and end 244 years of slavery.
    -ultimately only released slaves in south; border states' slaves weren't freed
    -actually unconstitutional but it was a war tactic
    -CSA's econ will fail bc of this
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    Battle of Gettysburg

    -largest and bloodiest battle fought in civil war
    -fought on northern territory; union won; turning point for Union
    -"Picket's Charge" a southern attack at the flank of the Northern defensive line failed, and the south was forced to retreat
    -Gettysburg Address was given after the battle; dedication to soldiers that died in battle
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    Battle of Chickamauga

    -largest Confed victory in western theatre
    -2nd battle with most casualties
    -union wanted to capture Chattanooga bc railroads and entry to south
    -confed "victory" bc they pushed union to chattanooga rather than letting them into GA but union achieved their goal to capture chattanooga
  • Battle of Atlanta/Atlanta Campaign

    Union forces (William T. Sherman) wanting to neutralize the important rail and supply hub, defeated Confederate forces (John Hood) defending the city. After ordering the evacuation of the city, Sherman burned most of the buildings in the city, military or not. After taking the city, Sherman’s March To The Sea was active.The battle is known for it strategic, military, and political importance. The victory greatly increased northern morale and is credited for Lincoln's reelection.
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    Sherman's March to the Sea

    After leaving the decimated city of Atlanta on November 16, Sherman led his troops on a destructive campaign which concluded with the capture of the port city of Savannah on December 21. It is known for its boldness as well as the sheer destruction inflicted on the south, both to its industry as well as military targets, effectively destroying the Confederate’s capacity to wage war. -followed ATL Campaign (union victory)
  • Freedman's Bureau established

    -est'd by Congress to help blacks and poor whites after Civil War; abt 4 million slaves recieved freedom thru this => destroyed Southern econ of plantations bc they left
    -provided food, housing and medical aid, established schools and offered legal assistance; also attempted to settle former slaves on Confederate lands confiscated or abandoned during the war
    -prevented from fully carrying out its programs bc shortage of funds and personnel and politics of race and Reconstruction
    -shut in 1872
  • 13th Amendment Ratified

    -abolished slavery
    -"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.".
  • Ku Klux Klan established

    Founded in 1866, the Ku Klux Klan extended into almost every southern state by 1870 and became a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party’s Reconstruction-era policies aimed at establishing political and economic equality for blacks. The civil rights movement of the 1960s also saw a surge of Ku Klux Klan activity, including bombings of black schools and churches and violence against black and white activists in the South.
  • 14th Amendment Ratified

    -The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves who had just been freed after the Civil War.
    -forbids any state to deny any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
  • 15th Amendment Ratified

    -ranted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
    -wasn't really~ in action bc of disenfranchisement
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    Bourbon Triumvirate era

    -collective term referreing to 2 political authorites-- Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt and John Gordon
    -goals: a) preserve old South and it's ways
    b) industrialization of South
    c) WHITE SUPREMACY -they were governors during this period and put in power to help the South's hardships
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    Jim Crow laws

    a) plessy v. ferguson
    b) segregation is legal
    c) "seperate but equal" created forced segregation even though it was illegal; disenfranchisement was included in this
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    Cotton Expositions

    -important way for to attract tourists-- used to industrialize ATL; great promoter was Henry Grady
    1881- first one; mainly displayed cotton
    1887- more regional; grover cleveland visited
    1895- most ambitious; goals: foster trade between southern states and South American nations & to show the products and facilities of the region to the rest of the nation and to Europe; showcased latest technology in transportation, manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and others; ATL Compromise given by BookerTW
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Homer A. Plessy was arrested and jailed for boarding a car of the East Louisiana Railroad that was designated for use by white patrons only. Plessy was 1/8 black. In a 7 to 1 decision the "separate but equal" provision of public accommodations by state governments was found to be constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause; seperate but equal came from this, which allowed (usually) better services for whites and not as good services for coloreds.
  • Atlanta Riot of 1906

    -white mobs killed dozens of blacks, wounded scores of others, and inflicted considerable property damage. Local newspaper reports of alleged assaults by black males on white females were the catalyst for the riot
    -started bc elite whites were worried abt blacks having a rise
  • Leo Frank Case

    A Jewish man in Atlanta was placed on trial and convicted of raping and murdering a thirteen-year-old girl named Mary Phagan who worked for the National Pencil Company, which he managed. he first recieved a death sentence, but then it became a life sentence. the knights of mary phagan weren't happy with this so they lynched (hanged) him. his death sparked the start of the kkk.
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    Carl VInson

    pushed for stronger defense thruout Cold War; 25 consecutive terms in House of Reps; Naval Affairs Committee-- GA;s interest in military; major influence in promoting strong national defense; passed 2 important bills in COngress: a) expansion of naval aviaiton and b) faster construction of naval ships; FATHER OF TWO OCEAN NAVY
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    Boll Weevil and Drought

    boll weevil ruined cotton crop
    drought ruined other crops
    ppl left farms and they failed--> banks were in loss bc loans weren't paid ga was in depression
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    Eugene Talmadge (in office)

    racist white supremacist "democrat"
    used New Deal money for building roads/infrastructure and improving GA (used it like tax money + spent it how he wanted)
    lowered taxes and utilities and put more money in GAians' pockets ==> econ grew and was re-elected
    almost lost UGA's accreditdation bc he wouldn't integrate it
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    Richard Russell

    GA's youngest governor; member/speaker of House of Reps; 38 years in Senate; combined universities and colleges into Board of Regents; gave GA presence in Wash. DC; DEVELOPED SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM; advisor to 6 presidents
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    New Deal Programs

    purpose of these laws was to bring about economic recovery, relieve the suffering of the unemployed, reform defects in the economy, and improve society
    -FDR's work social security act: help people who can't help themselves (active)
    agricultural adjustment act; cut down $ farmers were paid so they wouldn't produce much (unconstitutional)
    civilian conservation corps: young unmarried men worked on conservation assignments
    public works administration: married men hired to build public services
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    Bell Aircraft started

    B-29 bombers built after Peral Harbor; moved from Buffalo to Marietta; started 1943, closed 1945, reopened 1950; still open but called Lockheed Martin Corporation
  • Lend Lease program

    US needed a way to show support for allies in WWI but not actually participate (isolationism) GB borrows/pays for weapons/supplies and pays back for it it was super vague so FDR could send whatever ==> JOBS
  • Bombing of Pearl Harbor

    Japan bombed US bc US stopped exporting panes/aviation parts, gas and metals, etc. Japan needs a way of getting these supplies; invades Dutch East Indies bombs US to show that they are ready to go to war with us; US joins war soon after