Cold war

By feebee
  • UK involved in WW2

    led by Churchill
  • The Grand Alliance is created

    -purpose: defeating Nazi Germany and the other Axis Powers (e.g Japan)
    -an alliance of convenience between the UK, USA, and USSR
  • USSR involved in WW2

    led by Stalin
  • Japan bombed Pearl Harbour

  • US involved in WW2

    led by Roosevelt
  • Period: to

    Tehran Conference

    -first meeting of the allies
    -USA + UK would invade Europe from the west through Nazi-occupied France (using UK as a base), opening up a second front there by May 1944 (harder to fight 2 wars at once)
    -USSR would invade Germany from the East
    -USSR would join the war against Japan once Germany was defeated

    -USA and UK agreed Polish borders would move west (German land to Poland and Polish land to USSR)
    -idea of an international body to settle disputes (foundations of NATO)
  • Period: to

    Yalta Conference

    -Declaration of Liberated Europe: aid for those liberated from Nazi control.
    -Germany would have some sort of reparations (Stalin wanted $20bn monetary)
    -Germany demilitarised
    -Nazi war criminals tried in court
    -US + UK wanted democratic elections in East Europe, Poland remained in Soviet Sphere of Influence
    -USSR would declare war on Japan once Germany was defeated
    -Germany would be split into four (UK, USA, USSR, France)
    -Creation of UN agreed on
  • Roosevelt's death

    replaced with Truman
  • Germany surrenders

  • USA tests atomic bomb

    -this gave the USA a huge military advantage
    -it angered Stalin as he felt he should have been consulted
  • Period: to

    Potsdam Conference

    -banned the Nazi party in Germany
    -Nuremberg trials would try war criminals
    -created Council of Foreign Ministers
    -Germany divided into 4 zones of occupation + USSR would recieve 1/4 of the output of the other zones (compensation for no reparations)
    -USA wanted democratic elections in East Europe (a pro-communisty party had been installed in Poland)
  • Clement Atlee replaces Churchill as PM

  • USA dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima

  • USA dropped atomic bomb on Nagasaki

    -contributed to Japan's surrender + the end of WW2
  • Japan defeated (VJ day)

  • First session of the Council of Foreign Ministers

    -aimed to help Europe's recovery and settle peace treaties with Nazi allies (e.g. Italy, Bulgaria, Finland)
  • United Nations established

  • The Long Telegram

    Sent by US Ambassador to the Soviet Union, George Kennan, to Washington.
    -Argued the USSR was a threat to capitalism that should be destroyed.
    -Suggested USSR was building its naval, military, and nuclear power.
    -Said peace between USA + USSR was impossible
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    -Given by Winston Churchill in Fulton, Missouri (USA)
    An iron curtain has descended across the continent of Europe
    -Described USSR's behaviour in Eastern Europe
  • US Secretary of State James Byrnes: 'the US has formally announced its intention to unify the economy of its zone with all other zones'

  • Novikov telegram

    Sent by Soviet Ambassador to USA, Nikolai Novikov, to Stalin
    -Said USA aimed to be the greatest power in the world
    -Said USA was preparing to go to war
    -Said USSR was the only nation that could stop USA becoming the most dominant military + economic power in the world
  • Cominform (Communist Information Bureau)

    -tried to encourage communist uprising in Europe
    -hoped to destroy communist opposition in satellite states
  • Formation of Bizonia

    -US + UK's zones of Germany joined
  • Truman Doctrine

    -at this point Poland, Romania + Bulgaria were under USSR control: USA was scared of the domino effect
    I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures. I believe we must assist free peoples to work out their own desitinies in their own way
    -committed to giving political, military + financial aid
    -introduced Containment policy
    -reduced communisms appeal to countries devastated postwar
  • Trizonia formed

    -France joined
    -Trizonia began to recieve Marshall aid (recieving $1.45bn)
    -Stalin thought this broke Yalta + Potsdam agreements.
  • The Marshall Plan

    -Provided economic assistance to the Truman Doctrine
    -$12.7bn to Europe
    -meant to help rebuilding + encourage trade with the US
    -Stalin prevented any USSR supported communist nations from accepting the aid
  • Deutschmark introduced in Bizonia

    1:1 for business
    1:15 for savers
  • The Berlin Blockade

    -USSR shut down all transport links into West Berlin (isolating it from Trizonia so no supplies reached it)
    -Western powers didn't want to appear weak but attacking/breaking USSR military blockades of roads + railway lines could trigger war
  • Period: to

    The Berlin Airlift

    -peaceful show of strength + solution to regaining some control
    -supplies were flown into West Berlin
    -Tegel airport built to improve efficiency (1 plane every 30s)
    -gave USSR a negative image
  • Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)

    -an answer to the Marshall Plan
    -gave financial aid, encouraging trade with the USSR
    -any nation that joined had to refuse Marshall aid
    -included satellite states Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania + East Germany
  • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)

    -united the USA, France + UK under a military alliance with the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark + Canada
    -collective security: if one is attacked, the others fight on its behalf
  • Federal Republic of Germany created

  • USSR develops atomic bomb

    *4 years after USA
  • German Democratic Republic formed

    -another satellite state
  • USA builds Hydrogen bomb

    1000x more destructive
  • Period: to

    'brain drain'

    -3.5 million East Germans migrated to West Germany
    -Soviet propaganda defeat
    -skilled workers leaving meant output, productivity, and wealth suffered
  • USSR build Hydrogen bomb

    *1 year after USA
  • Stalin dies

    -replaced by Nikita Khrushchev
  • Period: to

    Hungary led by Matyas Rakosi

  • The Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO

  • Warsaw Pact

    -a response to NATO
    -alliance between the USSR + its Eastern European satellite states
  • Secret Speech

    -given by Khrushchev
    -introduced the liberal idea of destalinization
  • Hungarians pulled down Stalin's statue

    -protests on the streets
    -there had been food shortages and bad harvests
  • Imre Nagy became Hungarian PM

    -more liberal than Rakosi, and more liberal than anticipated
    -planned to end 1-party rule
    -wanted an impartial legal system
    -wanted to give farmers private ownership of land
    -wanted the Soviet army to withdraw from Hungary
  • Nagy announces Hungary leaving the Warsaw Pact

  • USSR invaded Hungary

    -there was a vocal condemnation of this by the USA, but no actual action, as they didn't want to risk war
  • USSR tests Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)

    -could be fired 5500km
  • Nagy executed

    -Soviet Politburo appointed Janos Kadar in his place
    -15 point programme adopted to reverse Nagy's reforms, tightening communist control
  • The Berlin Ultimatum

    -memorandum issued by Khrushchev
    -claimed Berlin should be absorbed into East Germany
    -said all USA, UK + French troops should leave Berlin in 6 months (they didn't)
    -led to a series of summit meetings
  • USA develops ICBM

    *1 year after USSR
  • Fidel Castro's socialist revolution overthrew General Batista

    -ended cooperation with USA
    -Cuba began trade with USSR (oil, fuel etc)
  • Geneva summit

  • Camp David summit

    -led by Eisenhower and Khrushchev
  • Paris summit

    -undermined by U2 Spy Plane crisis: USSR had shot down a USA spy plane in Russian airspace
  • Vienna summit

    -between Khrushchev and Kennedy
    -failed to resolve the issues between the USA and USSR
  • Bay of Pigs

    America invaded Cuba
    -CIA informed Kennedy itd appear as a Cuban revolt
    -CIA funded Cuban exiles: Brigade 2506, giving them US plans, the invasion launched from Guatemala
    -1400 US paramilitaries met by 20000 Cuban army + surrendered
    -Castro had been warned
    -US planes had been used
    -1202 of Brigade 2506 were captured and ransomed for $28mil worth of tractors
  • Building of the Berlin Wall begins

    -an effort to solve the refugee crisis, keeping people in the East
    -initially a fence rimmed with razor wire, developed into a heavy concrete border
    -USSR propaganda defeat: showed they couldn't control their citizens
    -a more peacful solution than in Hungary
    -initially, foreigners could travel across 'Checkpoint Charlie'
  • Stand off between Soviet army tanks and Americans crossing to the East

  • agreement+consequences

    -the prisoners were exchanged for $53mil worth of food + medicine
    -any possibility of good US-Cuban relations was destroyed by the Bay of Pigs
    -Castro's socialist rule was cemented
    -it wasn't a good look for the USA to have funded a failed invasion and try to deny involvement
  • USSR missile sites discovered on Cuba

    Cuba had allowed their placement as a deterrent for further USA attacks
    -this caused US media panic
  • 'quarantine zone' on Cuba

    -Kennedy placed a blockade to prevent USSR ships reaching Cuba
    -USSR initially said they wouldn't respect it and any action towards their ships could provoke nuclear war.
  • Kennedy speaks to media about Cuba

    -hawks wanted aggressive action against Cuba e.g. Dean Acheson
    -doves considered MAD so didn't think it worth the risk
    (led by US defense secretary Robert McNamara
  • Compromise on Cuba

    Khrushchev and Kennedy agreed the USSR wouldn't place missiles on Cuba if the USA removed its warheads/ICBMs from European army bases (Italy, Turkey etc), so neither had missiles in range of the other's teritory
    -USA saved some face as they removed the missiles without informing the public
  • Khrushchev televised appearance

    -states his agreement not to send missiles to Cuba
    -Soviet ships never crossed the blockade
    -weaker appearance
    -war was avoided
  • Kennedy: 'Ich bin ein Berliner'

    -showed solidarity
  • Limited Test Ban Treaty

    -nuclear weapons could no longer be tested above ground
  • Hotline created between White House and Kremlin

    -neither side wanted war and this meant leaders could communicate immediately in a crisis
    -consequence of CMC1962
  • Khrushchev removed as leader

  • USA and USSR had equal numbers of nuclear missiles

  • Outer Space Treaty

    -agreed not to use nuclear weapons in outer space (blocks loophole of not being on the ground in LTBT)
  • Brezhnev doctrine

    -installed the idea the USSR would use Warsaw pact troops to retain power
    -if communism was threatened/reforms were introduced in the sphere of influence invasion was expected
    -condemned by USA + UK, but they did not want war
    -opposed by Yugoslavia, Romania, China, Albania, France + Italy
  • Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty

    -stopped the USA and USSR from sharing nuclear missiles with other nations
    (believed Israel got some in 1967)
  • Dubcek became leader of Czechoslovakia (Prague Spring)

    -living standards has fallen under USSR rule- opposition to communism
    -communism with a human face
    -reforms to improve living standards
    -increased political freedom
    -relaxed censorship
    -reduced power to the secret police
    -market socialism
    -this threatened USSR as it could lead to reforms elsewhere in the sphere of influence
  • Warsaw Pact troops sent to Czechoslovakia

    -Brezhnev wanted the reforms removed, Dubcek refused
    -Dubcek was arrested, he urged Czech troops not to violently resist
    -It became a strict-run satelite state under Gustav Husak
    -normalisation removed the reforms
    -Dubcek was returned to Czech government with less power
  • SALT 1 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty)

    -capped missile kinds USA +USSR could have
    -no new ICBMS (replacements allowed)
    -no new nuclear launch sites
    -no new nuclear submarines (replacements allowed)
    -maximum of 2 Anti-Ballistic Missile deployment areas
    each (keep MAD mutual)
    -positive collaboration
    -paused arms race
    Agreed between Nixon and Brezhnev.
    Successful enough to prompt SALT 2
  • Vladivostock summit

    laid the grounds for SALT 2
  • Brezhnev visited Cuba

    -Cuba began to ask USSR for military defence support
    -USA was trying to regain ties, but also wouldn't recognise Castro's government and the CIA unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate him
  • Helsinki Accords

    -signed by 35 countries
    -focused on international borders, security + human rights
    Basket 1: current European borders were inviolable
    Basket 2: USA + USSR agreed to trade, economic dependence reducing chance of war. Promoted trade + tech links across the Iron curtain
    Basket 3: to respect human rights- free movement + speech
  • Helsinki consequences

    -the UN would be used as a peace mediator rather than military support
    -student exchange trips: co-operation + sharing of knowledge
    -East + West Germany would be permanently split
    -not an official treaty
    -Brezhnev doctrine still in place, USA still interfered elsewhere.
  • Pro-Soviet soldiers overthrew the Afghani government, setting up a communist state

    -this began a civil war
    -reforms were met with violent reaction
    -20 years friendship treaty signed with the USSR
  • Period: to

    Nur Muhammad Taraki president of Afgghanistan

  • USSR invaded Afghanistan

  • Period: to

    Afghan war cost the USSR 18bn rubles

    -led to economic struggles
  • SALT 2

    -signed by Brezhnev + Carter
    -agreed USA + USSR would stop developing new missile programs
    -each could own only 1320 long-range/ballistic missiles
    -destroyed by the Afghanistan war (never ratified by the Senate + House of Representative because of it- didn't become US law)
  • Taraki's death

    -Hafizullah Amin became president of Afghanistan
  • Amin's death

    I guessed it, it's all true
    -died in a Soviet attack on the royal palace in an invasion
    -Babrak Karmal was chosen as the new president
  • USA boycotted the Moscow Olympic games

  • The Carter Doctrine

    -all relations with the Soviet Union were broken off
    -trade agreements made at Helsinki stopped
    -USA supported economic sanctions against the USSR
    -committed to using force in Iran + Afghanistan if needed
  • Reagan became US president

    -harsh views towards communism and socialism
    -funded the Mujahidin against the USSR in Afghanistan
    -invested in Perishing missiles
    -commissioned the Star Wars nuclear defence system
  • USSR boycotted the Los Angeles Olympic games

  • Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union

    -the economy was struggling
    -satellite states only remained in the Warsaw pact for fear of miliary repression
  • Dubcek died aged 70