Series of trials against Nazi soldiers for war crimes after WWII. Held by the Allies in Nuremburg, Germany. Many Nazi's were convicted for crimes against humanity because of the way prisoners of concentration camps were treated.
Doctor's Trials Begins
Sentences - Doctors Trial
The Doctor's Trials were one part of the Nuremberg Trials. 23 people were accused of crimes against humanity because of cruel medical experiments that occurred during the Holocaust.
Truman Doctrine Announced
The Truman Doctrine was the official declaration of the beginning of the Cold War. Pres. Truman was trying to get the US to help protect other countries from communism.
The Red Scare
McCarthy on Anti-Communist Investigation
Also known as McCarthyism, the Red Scare was the fear that communism was beginning to come into the US. Joseph McCarthy was a primary figure during this time, and he accused many Americans of being communist, including the US Army and many entertainers (actors, directors, etc.)
Japanese War Trials End
Trials against 28 military and government officials in Japan. 25 of the accused were found guilty for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Seven (including Hideki Tojo) were executed in Tokyo.
NATO Is Formed
History of NATO
The US and 11 different Western nations formed NATO because of the spread of communism. The purpose of NATO was to form an alliance where, if one nation is attacked, all the other countries consider it an attack against themselves as well.
Paul Robeson Concert Riot
Riot at Concert
Robeson believed in communism which caused bad feelings among many Americans. Concert-goers were attacked and Paul Robeson was lynched and a burning cross was left behind by the KKK.
The Korean War was between North and South Korea. North Korea was a communist nation who wanted to force South Korea into communism as well. Fortunately, the US was S. Korea's ally and aided them in fighting back N. Korea.
Gen. MacArthur Asked To Step Down
Pres. Truman dismisses Douglas MacArthur because he was thought to be causing a bigger war in Asia than necessary. MacArthur's dismissal stirred Americans but they came to realize Truman just wanted a "limited war" which was the best.
Fulgencio Batista Regains Power in Cuba
Batista had stepped down in 1944 and after 8 years decided to take control of Cuba once again. So he staged a coup and forcefully became the Cuban dictator.
Fidel Castro/Cuban Rev.
The purpose of the revolution was to revolt against the government & to overthrow the Cuban president, Fulgencio Batista. The revolution's leader, Fidel Castro, was attempting to make Cuba a communist country. Cuba is still a communist nation today.
Korean Armistice Signed
The Korean Armistice ended the 3-year Korean War. It was signed by Lieutenant General William Harrison Jr. for the US & General Nam II for North Korea.
Civil Rights Movement
A radical movement that has led to the freedom of blacks. Leaders of the civil rights movement include Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks. It helped get rid of the Jim Crow Laws and the "separate but equal" concept.
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board Docs
Brown v. Board of Education was a court case that decided whether or not separate but equal in schools was really fair. The decision was unanimous and schools started to integrate.
Warsaw Pact is Formed
The Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw Pact was formed in 1955 in response to the formation of NATO. It consisted of the USSR and 7 other Eastern Europen countries. It got it's name because it was signed in Warsaw, Poland.
Rosa Parks Arrested
Rosa Parks Arrest Report
Blacks were required to give their seats to whites and Rosa Parks wouldn't do so on a bus in Montgomery, AL. She was taken off the bus and arrested. Her rebellion began a bus boycott among the blacks that lasted over a year.
Hungarian Revolution Begins
Nationwide rebellion against the Hungarian government. It started off as a student demonstration but grew to an all out national revolt that ended up failing.
Sputnik I Launched
Sputnik I was the first successful satellite to be sent into outer space. It was launched by Russia and it weighed about 184 pounds. It circled the Earth once every hour and 36 min. The launching of Spunik I beganthe Space Race, between primarily the US and Russia.
The Space Race
The Space Race was a "competition" between the US and the USSR. Both nations were trying to get ahead of each other in space exploration and knowledge.
American U-2 Plane Shot Down
Francis Gary Powers
Francis Gary Powers was flying a U-2 spy plane over Russia. His plane was attacked twice by Soviet missiles. He escaped the plane but when he parachuted to the ground, he was surrounded by Soviets.
Civil Rights Act of 1960 Enacted
Civil Rights Act of 1960
Pres. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1960 on May 6 in an effort to make voting rights for blacks better. It was a step towards more equality but it didn't provide much better circumstances as far as voting rights were concerned.
1st OPEC Meeting
Iran, Iraq, Saudi-Arabia, Kuwait, & Venezuela came together to form OPEC in 1960. The purpose of it is to make sure the income for OPEC nations is equal and fair & that there's a regular supply of petroleum to countries who buy it.
Built by the Germans, the Berlin Wall was built to prevent anyone from coming into East Berlin, seeing that East Berlin had better jobs and pay and lived easier than those in West Berlin. In West Germany, they called it the "death strip" since many people were killed trying to escape. It was more than 87 miles long and it stood for 28 years.
Cuban Missile Crisis Ends
Cuban Missile Crisis Song
The USSR was sending nuclear missiles to Cuba and aiming them at the US but agreed to remove the missiles if the US agreed to not invade Cuba. The situation put the world on the brink of a nuclear war.
JFK Visits Berlin
JFK in Berlin
US Pres. John F. Kennedy goes to Berlin and calls himself a "Berliner" in a speech. The speech was assuring W. Berlin they had US support. Some think he called himself a jelly donut when he said "ich bin ein Berliner" rather than a Berliner.
March on Washington
March on Washington
The March on Washington was one of the most important rallies in civil rights history. Over 200,000 people participated and Martin Luther King's "I Have A Dream" speech gave many people hope and determination.
Harlem Race Riot Begins
Harlem Race Riot (1964)On 16 July, 1964, a 15 year old black boy (James Powell) was shot 3 times and killed by a police officer. This event led to 6 nights of riots and rallies and it all ended with 1 death, 118 injuries, and 465 arrests.
Malcolm X Killed
Malcolm X Death
Malcolm X was going to speak to the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Harlem when he was shot to death by 3 Nation of Islam members. One of the gunmen was beaten down by the crowd before any policemen showed up and all of the shooters were convicted.
France Withdraws From NATO
France Leaves NATO
France's president Charles De Gaulle had been building an independent defence for years and formally withdrew from NATO in 1966. All non-French troops in France had to leave and French forces were taken back.
Tet Offensive Launched by Viet Cong
Military group Viet Cong from North Vietnam launches the Tet Offensive against South Vietnam and its allies. Their hope was to break the US & S. Vietnam's alliance so the US would no longer be a factor.
MLK Jr. Assassinated
King was standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel when he was shot by James Earl Ray. He died at 7:05 in the evening, about an hour after he was shot.
Robert Kennedy Assassinated
Robert Kennedy Assassination
Robert Kennedy, the US Senator who was running for president, was shot in LA by Sirhan Sirhan. He was shot 3 times and died 6 June.