Daisy black

Cold War: 1945-1972

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    Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

    Established the Soviet sphere of influence and the wider spread of communism around the globe. Had allies in China, North Korea, North Vietnam but enemies in the US and UK
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    Franklin Delano Roosevelt

    Committed to working with the USSR to rebuild Europe and prevent a future war
  • The Percentages Agreement

    The idea of how to split central Europe amongst the Allies (France, USA, UK, USSR), created by Churchill and signed off by Stalin
  • Yalta Conference

    Key Agreements-
    - Germany and Berlin to be divided into four zones
    - Liberated countries of Western and Central Europe allowed to hold free elections
    - UN would be formed to ensure future international cooperation
    - Declaration of Liberated Europe (surmising all points above) signed
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    Harry S Truman

    • Did not get along with Stalin as well as Roosevelt, since did not need Russian allies anymore for WW2
    • Supported policies such as Containment, against Communist ideology
  • Potsdam Conference

    • Germany to be divided
    • Nazi party banned
    • Germans returned to Germany
    • Poland territory to USSR
  • Atomic Bomb

    • USA dropped bombs on Hiroshima (6 Aug) and Nagasaki (9 Aug)
    • American plane Enola Gay dropped bombs
    • 70,000 killed instantly and thousands died in weeks to come (H)
    • Over 40,000 killed after second dropping (N)
    • Clear message sent relating how the US intended to dominate post-war period
    • USA's possession of atomic weapons and subsequent hiding of information set scene for rapidly increasing tensions between USA and USSR and the arms race
  • Long Telegram

    • George Kennan - outlined fears of Soviet ambitions, any cooperation was doomed to fail
    • confirmed Truman's fears
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    • Churchill directly criticised the USSR
    • Talked about the idea of the Iron Curtain
  • Truman Doctrine

    • USA would support any country threatened by communism
    • Containment
  • Marshall Plan

    • Provided economic support for countries of Europe.
    • USA needed a strong Europe to trade with
    • $13.15 billion divided between the countries
  • Comecon

    • Stalin's response to Marshall plan
    • Support + economic aid to countries behind iron curtain
    • equal sharing of knowledge and resources to benefit all rather than one country helping the rest
    • officially equal partners, really all decisions made in Moscow
  • Yugoslavia

    • Yugoslavia had never been liberated by the Red Army, hence little loyalty to Stalin
    • Tito, the leader, continued to show independence to Stalin
    • 1948, Tito sought Marshall Aid, hence Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform
    • Only European country outside of Iron Curtain, independent
  • Berlin Blockade + Airlift

    • Operation Vittles (USA) / Plainfare (UK)
    • flight every 3 mins
    • 12000 tonnes of coal on Easter Parade, 15th April
  • NATO

    • clear end to USA isolationism, western countries had clear support of USA
    • 12 countries inc. USA, UK + France signed North Atlantic Treaty, no countries from behind Iron Curtain
    • defensive alliance, attack on one country means all countries could respond, coordinating military response
  • Communist Revolution in China

    Mao Tse-Tung declares establishment of People's Republic of China.
    Nationalists move to Taiwan.
  • HUAC + McCarthyism

    House Un-American Activities Committee
    - Questioned those believed to be involved in communist activities
    - Most were innocent
    - Alger Hiss - State department official - passed secrets to USSR
    - Julius + Ethel Rosenberg executed for passing on nuclear secrets
    - McCarthyism - 'witch hunt'
    - Reds under the bed
  • Treaty of Friendship

    • $300 million of aid - 95% to be paid back with interest
    • 8000 Chinese students sent to USSR
    • 20000 soviet experts sent to China
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    Korean War

    • 38th parallel
    • Syngman Rhee - South
    • Kim Il-Sung - North
    • USA called UN for ceasefire
    • USSR boycotting UN - could not veto
    • USA backed South
    • USSR (sort of) helped North
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    Dwight David Eisenhower

    Agreed to armistice to end Korean War. Wanted to ease tensions between US-USSR until U2 Crisis
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    Nikita Khrushchev

    • Policy of De-stalinisation, eager to move away from Stalin's brutal policies
    • Initially tried to establish 'peaceful co-existence'
    • Tensions with USA rising during reign
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    Vietnam War

    • 1954 Geneva conference, Vietnam split along 17th parallel, Ho Chi Minh established Communist republic in north
    • Domino Theory of Communism devised in 1950s in USA
    • Eisenhower's New Look policy entailed spending increasing amounts of money, equipment, military + political efforts in South Vietnam effort, eventually over 16,000 advisors sent
    • Vietcong established in 1960, Ho Chi Minh trail, guerrilla warfare against Diem's government
  • Warsaw Pact

    • Just after West Germany allowed to rebuild military and join NATO, Khrushchev saw as act of western aggression
    • 8 countries signed in Poland, presented as collective security organisation
    • Allowed USSR more direct control over other countries' militaries behind the Iron Curtain
  • Secret Speech

    Khrushchev delivers Secret Speech announcing policy of 'peaceful coexistence' and De-stalinisation
  • Hungarian Uprising

    • Rakosi replaced by more liberal Imre Nagy
    • Hungarian students called for removal of Soviet troops from country, as well as to leave the Warsaw Pact
    • 4th November, Soviet troops + tanks attacked, up to 200,000 Hungarian refugees fled
    • Lack of USA involvement made revolutionaries feel betrayed, as established that USSR could do anything behind Iron Curtain
  • U2 Crisis

    • Due to fears of Missile Gap in Arms Race, USA sending spy planes over USSR
    • Gary Powers' plane shot down, just before Paris Peace Summit
    • Eisenhower initially tried to pass off as weather plane, later refused to apologise, hence Khrushchev stormed out of peace summit
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    John Franklin Kennedy

    • Optimistic about superpower relations
    • Keen to establish ties with European countries near Iron Curtain
    • Brinkmanship
  • Bay of Pigs

    • The plan was for a large group of Cuban exiles trained by the CIA (Brigade 2506) to take control of Cuba, and attack Castro, supported and funded by the government.
    • Kennedy pulls out last minute
    • The bay of pigs invasion goes terribly wrong, 200 killed and 1197 taken prisoner by Castro
    • US had broken international law, wasted $5 million, and Kennedy seemed weak and incompetent.
    • Pushed Castro's relationship with the USSR, posing a greater threat to the USA and an increase in tensions
  • Berlin Wall

    • Soviet troops lined up between West-East Berlin, whilst wall built
    • Khrushchev decided to build it do prevent western spies from entering Soviet territory and to prevent skilled East-Berliners leaving
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    • US has nuclear bases in IT and TR.
    • Khv starts sending missiles/nuclear weapons to Cuba
    • Kdy finds out, and blockades Cuba- 21st Oct.
    • DEFCON 3
    • Khv agrees to remove- 26th Oct.
    • Submarine underwater discovered, that would've released a missile
    • Khv only agrees to compromise on the condition that Kdy removes nuclear bases from IT and TR.- 27th Oct.
    • Weapons removed from IT/TR secretly, publicly from CUB, leading to shame for Khv
    • Leads to formation of Kremlin
    • Closest to physical war.
  • Ich bin ein Berliner

    • Kennedy goes to give speech to 120,000 West-Berliners
    • Spoke about evils of Communism and determination to protect freedom of Berlin
    • 'Thaw' period of Cold War over
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    Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Succeeded Kennedy after his assassination. Vice President from 1960. Tensions were high due to recent Cuban Missile Crisis and Space Race
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    Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev

    • Determined to keep Communist influence in Eastern Bloc
    • Eventually declining tensions with USA due to relations with Richard Nixon, Detente
  • Détente

    Sino-Soviet Split; relations between Moscow and Beijing deteriorated and US took the chance to build relations with second largest communist power
    Economic issues; both superpowers had spent billions of dollars on the Cold War
    Nuclear Issues; Cuban missile crisis, other countries could develop missiles and the superpowers had to prevent the spread of such technology
    Lessons of conflict; Neither side truly wanted the war, and the war in Vietnam proved that wars did not exist solely on the weapons
  • Brezhnev Doctrine

    • If any other country in the Warsaw Pact acted as Czechoslovakia had, they would face the same consequences.
    • This worried China, and caused suspicion as it was undergoing a cultural revolution.
    • At first, USA ended talks that would've improved relations, but it soon changed it's perspective of the Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Prague Spring

    • Dubcek replaces Novotny as leader and introduces multiple reforms.
    • E.g The removal of state controls on business, ending press censorship, freedom of speech etc.
    • 'Socialism with a human face'
    • These changes became known as Prague Spring
    • Brezhnev needs to retain his control over Czechoslovakia, Warsaw Letter sent to Dubcek.
    • Force is the used when Dubcek doesn't listen
    • 100 killed, 500 wounded (protesters)
  • SALT 1

    • SALT 1- began in 1969, banning new ballistic missiles and reducing defence systems against ballistic missiles
    • Nixon and Brezhnev as peacemakers
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    Richard Milhous Nixon

    Friendship with Leonid Brezhnev resulted in slow decrease in tensions between US-USSR, eventually ending up in detente. Friendship with China and subsequent historic visits also eased international relations. Forced to resign due to involvement in Watergate (due to corruption/ illegal activities came to light)
  • Man on moon

    • USA - Neil Armstrong
  • Apollo-Soyuz mission

    First joint mission USSR and USA