Abraham Lincoln makes his Cooper Union Address in New York City. The speech is very influential and critical to his election as president.
The Pony Express is used for the first time, traveling all the way from Missouri to California.
Thomas Jackson Assigned to Harpers Ferry.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson gets assigned to command at Harpers Ferry. While still under the Union, soon once the Southern states secede, he joins the Confederacy.
Lincoln Wins the Republican Party.
Abraham Lincoln wins the Republican Party over William H. Seward. Lincoln eventually becomes president and Seward becomes the Secretary of State.
Government Printing Office
The United States Congress establishes its first government printing office. It began its operations with only 350 employees.
Abraham Lincoln's Election
Abraham is elected as the 16th president of the United States. He is the first president to support abolition and oppose slavery.
First Secession Event
The first secession convention is held in Colombia, South Carolina to discuss the idea of states leaving the Union due to Lincoln's election.
A compromise that attempted to settle the issue of slavery and the idea of secession. But, ultimately became a cause of the Civil War.
South Carolina Secedes
Only three days after the convention, South Carolina is the first state to secede from the Union and sets up many other southern states to take suit.
Harriet Tubman's Last Mission
Harriet Tubman arrives in New York on her final mission to free slaves. She had evaded capture for 8 years and freed hundreds of slaves using the underground railroad.
The Confederate States of America are created.
The seceded southern states create their own government based in Montgomery Alabama. So, the Confederate States of America are formed.
Jefferson Davis is elected as the first Confederate President
Jefferson Davis is appointed as the temporary president in Montgomery, Alabama until proper elections can be held.
Abraham Lincoln is officially inagurated
Abraham is officially inaugurated as the 16th president of the remaining Union states in Washington D.C.
Southern Forces fire at Fort Sumter
The first shots of the Civil war are fired upon the North troops in Fort Sumter. The North retreated and the Civil War begins.
President Lincoln issues a declaration for troops.
After the events at Fort Sumter, Lincoln issues a declaration for 75,000 troops to stop the south. As a result, 4 more southern states secede and Lincoln calls for 43,000 more troops.
The First Battle of Big Bethel
One of the first small conflicts of the Civil War. After Virginia secedes, North forces attempt to push south to capture Richmond.
Virginia is split into Virginia and West Virginia
During the Wheeling convention, Virginia is broken into the northern and southern regions. This created West Virginia which was admitted as the 35th state.
The Battle of Bull Run
The first true conflict of the Civil War. The Confederate forces push back the Northern troops as they defend Washington D.C.
The Battle of Wilson's Creek
The Northern forces try to counterattack the invading Southerners. The attack fails miserably causing the death of General Nathaniel Lyons.
Union Captures Fort Hatteras
In North Carolina, the Union naval forces are successful in capturing Fort Hatteras. This marks the start of the Union's efforts to restrict Southern ports.
Surrender at Fort Henry
The North successfully captures Fort Henry after the South surrendered. This success leads the way to the Union's control of the Tennesse River.
Surrender at Fort Donelson
The South surrenders one of their primary forts, Fort Donelson, giving the Union control of the Cumberland River. During this time Union General Ulysses S. Grant earns the nickname, "Unconditional Surrender".
Jefferson Davis' Inaguration
Jefferson Davis is elected and inaugurated as the first-ever president of the Confederate States.
Naval Battle between USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
In Hampton Roads, Virginia, there is a large naval battle between the USS Monitor and CSS Virginia. This marks the first time ironclads are used in combat.
Battle of Shiloh
Another major battle that took place during the Civil War. The Union victory gives the North an advantage and helps secure Ulysses S. Grant his role as general.
Battle of Memphis
The Union navy successfully defeats the Confederate forces occupying the Mississippi River and Memphis. This victory gave the Union much control of the Mississippi River.
The Seven Days Battle
A battle near Richmond Virginia lasted nearly seven days and resulted in a Confederate victory. The loss begins to prove General George McClellan unfit for the position.
Battle of Second Bull Run
A major conflict that is very similar to the First Battle of Bull Run. It is fought on the same grounds and also results in Union retreat.
Battle of Antietam
The single-day bloodiest battle of the Civil War. The South suffers a massive loss and concludes their invasion of the North. Soon Lincoln announces the Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Stones River
A conflict that took place in Tennesse and resulted in a Union victory over the controlling Confederates. The victory frees parts of middle Tennessee and boosts morale.
Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect, outlawing all slaves and slavery. Many people support it but do not feel that it goes far enough to abolish slavery
Battle of Chancellorville
A major Confederate victory, but Thomas Jackson becomes mortally wounded and died a few days later. After the battle, Lee requests an invasion of the North to move the fighting from Virginia.
The Siege of Vicksburg Begins
Union forces begin attacking Confederate defenses outside of Vicksburg, Mississippi. The Union aims to take the last amount of control the Confederates have on the Mississippi River.
Battle of Gettysburg
The bloodiest battle in the entire Civil War. The South's invasion of the North is crushed, but both sides suffer massive casualties.
Surrender at Vicksburg
After constant bombardment from the North, the South surrenders at Vicksburg. The Union gains control of the Mississippi River, a vital supply route for the South.
54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry
The Union navy and land forces launched attacks on defenses near Charleston, South Carolina. During that time, the 54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry sees action, the first all African American volunteer regiment.
Battle of Chickamauga
The Union army attempts to invade further into Tennessee but is stopped by the Confederate Army. The Northern army is defeated and is forced to retreat.
Lincoln dedicates the Soldiers National Cemetary in Gettysburg. He also delivers his famous Gettysburg Address, empowering the North to finish the war.
Battle for Chattanooga
The Union stops the Confederate attempts to invade Chattanooga, Tennesse. The North victory forces the Confederates out of Tennesse and down to Georgia.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Abraham Lincoln issues the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. He creates it so the South feel more inclined to surrender since it pardons those who participated in the Confederacy.
First Submarine Attack
The CSS H.L. Hurley attacked the USS Houstonic outside of Charleston, South Carolina. The USS Houstonic was hit by a torpedo and sank with all its men, while the CSS H.L. Hurley was lost and never found.
Andersonville Prison Camp
Andersonville Prison Camp opens and holds thousands of captured Union soldiers. The camp is known for its overcrowding and extremely poor conditions.
Red River Campaign
The Union beings a long-term strategy to strike into deeper parts of the Confederacy. The campaign begins under General Nathaniel Banks in Red River Louisiana.
Battle of the Wilderness
The first battle of the "Overlord Campaign" for the Union. As a result the Confederacy counterattacks in the dense woods in Fredericksburg Virginia.
Battle of Monocacy
As an attempt to lure Union troops away from the southern territory, the Confederates sent a small force to infiltrate Washington D.C. Union hastily sent another small force that held back the Confederates, and while it was ultimately a Union loss, they defended the capital.
Battle of the Crater
After nearly a month of tunneling underground by the Union soldiers, a large mine was detonated under a Confederate fort in the Petersburg siege lines. Despite this, the rest of the Union attack was uncoordinated and resulted in a loss.
Battle of Mobile Bay
A very important navy battle in which the Union sailed into Mobile Bay near Atlanta and defeated the Confederate forts, including the CSS Tennessee. As a result, the Union captures the most critical Southern port.
Battle of Fort Harrison
The Union forces sweep through the Confederate defenses and take Fort Harrison. The Confederates are unable to recapture the fort and lost a valuable position near Richmond, Virginia.
With the help and efforts of Ulysses S. Grant, Lincoln is elected for his second term in office, which will be inevitably cut short due to his assassination.
Sherman's March Begins
General Sherman begins his famous, "Sherman's March" in which he and his army parade down the east coastline and cities, destroying and burning anything they find.
Assault on Fort Fisher
The Union invades and captures Fort Fisher off the mouth of Cape Fear River. This closes the last southern seaport that was open to commercial shipping and imports.
Attack on Fort Stedman
One of the last assaults from the Confederate forces. The South attacks the Union forces along the Petersburg siege lines and gains small control of the Union forts. But by the end of the day the Confederates and push back and the siege lines remain the same.
Fall of Richmond
The southern capital in Richmond Virginia is abandoned as General Lee attempts to flee the city in hopes of group forces with Confederate General Johnston.
Surrender at Appomattox Court
After a small morning skirmish attempting to break through the Union blockade west to Dansville, Virginia, Lee requests to speak to General Grant. They discuss terms and eventually, Lee surrenders the Northern Virginia Army and is disbanded.
Only 5 days after the surrender at Appomattox Court, Lincoln is assassinated. He was at Ford's theater watching a show when actor John Wilkes Booth shot him.
Jefferson Davis Capture
Shortly after fleeing from Richmond once the Union army invaded, Confederate president Jefferson Davis is captured near Irwinville, Georgia.
End of the Civil War
Confederate forces under General Simon Bolivar Buckner surrender the Army of the Trans-Mississippi. This is the last of the Confederate army to surrender and marks the official end of the Civil War.
First Celebration of Juneteenth
Nearly two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Texas are informed of their freedom. The day is officially celebrated throughout 41 different states and is known as "Juneteenth".
Execution of Henry Wirz
Confederate Major Henry Wirz is hung for his actions as superintendent at the Andersonville Camp. He is the only Civil War soldier tried and executed for war crimes.
13th Amendment is Ratified
The United States Congress ratification of the 13th Amendment.
With that, slavery would be abolished all throughout America.
Andrew Johnson Vetos Civil Rights Bill
As the Reconstruction Era begins, president Andrew Johnson is forced to veto the Civil Rights bill. He believes that it will give the government too much power. It will eventually become the 14th Amendment.
1st Ambulance Goes Into Service
The 1st ever ambulance goes into service to transport injured people. This is due to Clara Barton and her efforts as a nurse and figure.
The United States purchases the Alaska region from Russia. The purchase was $7,200,000 which was roughly 2 cents per acre.
The First Civil Rights Act
Along with the 13-15 amendments, the first Civil Rights Act is passed. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 protects all rights of American citizens regardless of race.
American Equal Rights Association is Created
After the impact of the Civil War, the American Equal Rights Association is created. Along with the 13-15 amendments, the association fights for interracial citizens.
14th Amendment Passes
After push back from president Andrew Johnson, Congress passes the 14th amendment. This amendment lets anyone born in the United States citizenship.
Tennesse is Readmitted to the Union
After the Confederacy was destroyed, Andrew Johnson continued Lincoln's plan to readmit states to the Union. Using Lincoln's 10% plan, Tennesse is the first state readmitted to the Union.
David Farregut becomes the First Admiral
After David Farragut's efforts with the Union's navy and carries out the Anaconda plan, he is appointed as the first admiral in the navy.
Ulysses S. Grant becomes the General of the Army
After Ulysses S. Grant's leadership as the head of the Union army, he is appointed as the first-ever General of the Army.
Frederick Douglass becomes the First Black Delegate
As the United States enters the reconstruction era, black rights and freedoms are granted. One of the most influential black figures, Frederick Douglass, is the first black delegate at a national convention.
The First Ku Klux Klan
Despite the American reconstruction and civil rights, the first Ku Klux Klan is formed. The group aims to promote white supremacy and anti-black propaganda.
African Voting Rights
African men are granted the right to vote in Washington D.C. Although Andrew Johnson attempts to prevent the 15th Amendment, Congress still passes it.
Nebraska Becomes a State
Nebraska is admitted as the 37th state in the United States of America. While at first, only part of the state is admitted, soon is expands to how it is in the present day.
1st Recontruction Act
As the United States enters the reconstruction era, the first reconstruction act is passed. The act defines the terms for readmission of Confederate states and divides them into 5 military districts.
Congress Creates the Department of Education
Due to the efforts of various reformers, Congress creates the first Department of Education, regulating and providing education throughout the states.
Peonage is Abolished in New Mexico
As a result of the racial reconstruction and reform in the United States, Congress abolishes peonage. Peonage is when employers force workers to pay of debt with more work.
To honor Abraham Lincoln's tragic assassination, Congress approves the building of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C.
Recontruction in the South Begins
Roughly 2 years after the end of the Civil War, reconstruction in the Southern states begins and voting registration begins for African citizens.
First Dental School
After the health reform and progress from the Civil War, Harvard Dental School of Medicine is founded becoming the first dental school
First All Black University
Congress creates the first-ever all-black university, Howard University in Washington D.C., allowing more blacks an education.
Andrew Johnson's Impeachment
After 2 years in office, the Congress commission begins to attempt to impeach Andrew Johnson, becoming the first impeachment process in U.S. history.