The senator of Mississippi, Jefferson Davis, gives a speech in which he presents the idea of keeping and protecting slavery in the United States. He believed slavery should continue in the US and be legalized. The resolutions he presented were passed by the Senate Democratic caucus. Disagreement and division in the party continued to due to his speech.
Cooper Union Address
Lincoln gives a speech in Cooper Union, New York City. During his speech, he noted that a majority of the states believed that Congress should control slavery instead of having it grow and expand. In his speech he stated and believed that the government should stop slavery and ban it in new territories.
Constitutional Union Party
People who were formally part of the Whig Party and American Opposition Party formed the Constitutional Union Party in Baltimore, Maryland. People in this party did not want to be a part of the Democratic or Republican party, and also wanted to avoid secession. They elected John Bell as their president and Edward Everett as their vice president.
The "Wide-Awakes" were a political club that were all across the north during the 1860 election. This group supported Abraham Lincoln and agreed with his opinions and views.
Lincoln Wins Presidential Election
The outcome of the 1860 presidential election had a major impact on the United States. Lincoln became the 16th President of the United States, and his views were opposed by the South and favored by the North. He believed in abolishing slavery in the United States, which created much conflict among the states.
23 house members as well as 7 additional senators from the South shared their opinions about southern secession. Collectively, they made the decision to publicly announce that they wanted to begin the creation of the Southern Confederacy.
South Carolina Secedes from the Union
After the escalating disagreement regarding the expansion on slavery, South Carolina decided to secede from the Union, becoming the first state to do so. Due to Abraham Lincoln winning the 1860 presidential election, he agreed with the idea of abolishing slavery in the states that supported slavery. Many states that were a part of the Union did not agree with his views, which made them leave the Union, like South Carolina. After South Carolina left, more states began to follow.
The South Carolina Declaration of Secession
South Carolina issues their Declaration of Secession, also known as "Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union". This declaration of secession was issued by the government of South Carolina to explain why the state decided to secede from the Union.
Anderson Moves to Fort Sumter
Major Robert Anderson moved part of his troop from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. At that time, he realized that Fort Moultrie was and easy place to be attacked and therefore decided to move his men. He felt like Fort Moultrie was going to be attacked soon and wanted to avoid the attack.
South Carolinia seize the Federal Arsenal
South Carolinians seized the Federal Arsenal at Charleston. This made Fort Sumter the last part of federal property that was being controlled by the government.
Mississippi Secedes from the Union
Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union after South Carolina. The main reason that caused Mississippi to secede from the Union was that they wanted to continue to have slavery in their state. They had some underlying problems before the issue of slavery that could've also been a reason as to why they left, however slavery was the main problem.
Florida Secedes from the Union
Following Mississippi, Florida also decides to secede from the Union. Florida decided to secede because they believed it was necessary to protect slavery continue in their state and others.
Alabama Secedes from the Union
Alabama becomes the fourth state to secede the Union. Similar to the other states that already seceded from the Union, Alabama's main reason for doing so was due to the topic of the abolition of slavery.
Jefferson Davis is Inaugerated
Jefferson Davis was inaugurated and became the first, and only, president of the Confederate States of America. His inauguration was held at the Confederate capital, Montgomery.
Lincoln's Presidential Inauguration
Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States, in Washington. During his speech, he says that he does not want to interfere with the issue of slavery, that secession is illegal and the Union perpetual.
LeRoy Walker authorizes to use force
The Confederate Secretary of War, LeRoy Walker told Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard to use force if the government tries to re-supply Fort Sumter. Beauregard also demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.
First Battle at Fort Sumter
Some of those who where a part of the Confederate States of America took part in the first attack on Fort Sumter. This became the first battle of the Civil War. The battle lasted for two days, from April 12 to April 13, 1861 and ended with a Confederate win.
Lincoln Suspends Habeas Corpus
Habeas corpus is the right to be brought before a judge or into court if a person is under arrest. Lincoln decided to suspend the writ of habeas corpus between Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia. He did this as a way to give military authorities more power over dissenters and rebels. The suspension of habeas corpus allowed authorities to arrest anyone who showed or presented some sort of threat to the military and their operations.
First Battle of Bull Run
The first battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War. This battle was fought in Prince William, Virginia which was north of
the city of Manassas. Union troops marched from the capital to the Confederates. The outcome was in favor of the Confederates.
Judah Benjamin is Appointed Secretary of War
Judah P. Benjamin is appointed to be the Confederate States of America's Secretary of War. Being the secretary of war, he now had control over the Confederate army. Short after, Benjamin resigned and was then appointed secretary of state.
Battle of Mills Spring
The Battle of Mills Spring took place in Kentucky, This battle led to the total collapse of the eastern sector of the Confederate defensive line. The outcome of the battle was in favor of the Union.
Lincoln Takes Action
Lincoln issued a war order allowing the Union to launch a unified aggressive action against the Confederacy. General McClellan ignored the order that was given to him by Lincoln.
Battle of Fort Henry
Fort Henry was fought in Donelson, Stewart Country, Tennessee. This was the first important win for the Union in the Civil War. This win helped the Union gain control western and middle Tennessee and a large portion of Kentucky.
McClellan Loses Command
Lincoln issued an order reorganizing the Army of Virginia and relieving McClellan of supreme command. McClellan was told to lead the Army of the Potomac, and ordered to attack Richmond, which started the Peninsular Campaign.
Battle of Shiloh
Confederate forces attacked the Union under General Ulysses S. Grant, by Shiloh Church, Tennessee. Federal troops were almost defeated by the end of the day, however reinforcements arrived that same night. Many soldiers were killed on both sides. The Union won this battle.
The U.S. Congress passes a conscription act which created the first wartime draft of U.S. citizens in American history. The first conscription act was on April 16, 1862. This called forward any white man, specifically ages 18 to 35 to fight for the confederate army.
Stonewall Jackson Defeats the Union
Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson, attacked Union forces in late March, making them to retreat across the Potomac. The Union troops were rushed to protect Washington, D.C due to the attack.
The Battle of Seven Pines
The Battle of Seven Pines is also referred to the Battle of Fair Oaks that took place in Virginia. This battle lasted for two days in the Peninsular Campaign, from May 31st to June 1st. This battle marked the closest Union forces came to Richmond. Both the Union and the Confederates claimed victory.
The Seven Days' Battles
The Seven Days' Battles were a series of battles that lasted seven days. It started on June 26 and ended on July 2. The battles fought in these seven days were Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, Savage's Station, Frayser's Farm, and Malvern Hill. On the last day, the Confederates withdrew to Richmond, ending the Peninsular Campaign.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as Battle of Sharpsburg, was fought in Maryland. This battle was the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War. The battle had no clear winner, but because General Lee withdrew to Virginia, McClellan was considered the victor.
President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. He saw the growth of people who supported the abolition of slavery, and therefore decided to issue the proclamation. By doing this, it declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
The First National Banking Act
President Lincoln signed The National Currency Act into law. The act allowed the creation of national banks, set out a plan for establishing a national currency backed by government securities
The First Conscription Act
The National Conscription Act is signed forcing able bodied males aged 18-35 into joining the Union Army, The signing of this act led to the week long New York Draft Riots.
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville started on April 30 and ended May 6. Union General Hooker crossed the Rappahannock River to attack General Lee's forces. Lee split his army, attacking a surprised Union army and defeating them.
Battle of Vicksburg
Grant needs this to secure the Mississippi and has tried many times to take the area. He arrives in Mississippi and wins small victories. He also sends Calvary to destroy rail lines & distract the Confederacy from incoming troops. This battle divided the confederacy and cemented the reputation of Union General Ulysses S. Grant
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Gettysburg was the largest battle of the Civil War. here were 28,000 Confederate casualties and 23,000 Union casualties. The outcome was Union victory which made North have a morale boost. Due to this battle, the South never again attempts an assault on the Union ground.
Battle of Lawrence
The Battle of Lawrence, also known as the Lawrence Massacre or the Quantrill's raid, was an attack by a Confederate guerrilla group led by William Quantrill. During the battle there where around 150 unarmed men and boys killed.
The Battle of Chickamauga
The Union and Confederate forces met on the Tennessee-Georgia border, near Chickamauga Creek. Chickamauga was the largest Confederate victory in the Western theater and the Union forces retreated to Chattanooga.
The Gettysburg Address
The Gettysburg Address is a speech that President Abraham Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg. The speech explains how the ideals are worth dying for and that it is up to the living to carry on the work of those who died to protect ideals.
The Battle of Chattanooga
Union forces pushed Confederate troops away from Chattanooga. They fought at Chattanooga on the Tennessee River in late November 1863, which contributed significantly to victory for the North.
Fort Monroe and Hampton, Virginia—1864
Fort Monroe was the starting point for McClellan's Peninsular Campaign in 1862 and for Butler's advance to Petersburg in 1864. Davis was accused of treason, plotting the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, and mistreatment of Union prisoners of war.
General William T. Sherman's March to the Sea
General Sherman continued his march through Georgia to the sea. In the course of the march, he cut himself off from his source of supplies, planning for his troops to live off the land.
Battle of the Wilderness
The Battle of Wilderness was fought at Orange County, Virginia. The Union Army suffered more than 17,500 casualties over the two days of fighting, some 7,000 more than the toll suffered by the Confederates.
The Battle of Spotsylvania
The Battle of Spotsylvania lasted from May 8 to May 21 in Virginia. This battle was the second major engagement in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign. Grant tried various schemes to break the Confederate line, but both sides declared victory.
The Battle of Cold Harbor
The Battle of Cold Harbor was a disastrous defeat for the Union Army and caused about 18,000 casualties.
The Siege of Petersburg
The Siege of Petersburg lasted from June 9, 1864 to March 25, 1865. Ulysses S. Grant's assault on Robert E. Lee's armies at Petersburg failed to capture the Confederacy's vital supply center and resulted in the longest siege in American warfare.
Confederate spy Belle Boyd is arrested by Union forces. She is held at the Old Capital Prison in Washington D.C. She was arrested six times, imprisoned three times, and exiled twice.
Abraham Lincoln Is Re-Elected
Lincoln is re-elected in 1864. His victory made him the first president to win re-election since Andrew Jackson in 1832, as well as the first Northern president to ever win re-election.
Burning New York
A group of Confederate operatives that call themselves the Confederate Army of Manhattan set fires in more then 20 places. This is their unsuccessful attempt at burning New York down.
Sherman at the Sea
After marching through Georgia for a month, Sherman stormed Fort McAllister and captured Savannah itself eight days later.
The 13th Amendment is Passed
The 13th Amendment is passed on January 31, 1865.
Battle of Bentonville
The Battle of Bentonville was fought in Johnston County, North Carolina. This battle lasted from March 19 to March 21. This major battle, the largest ever fought in North Carolina, was the only significant attempt to defeat the large Union army of Gen. William T.
The Battle of Fort Stedman, also known as the Battle of Hare's Hill, was fought in the siege lines around Petersburg, Virginia. The Confederate forces were able to capture Fort Stedman from the Union.
Surrender at Appomattox Court House
Lee's troops were soon surrounded, and on April 7, Grant called upon Lee to surrender. A couple days later, the two commanders met at Appomattox Courthouse, and agreed on the terms of surrender.
The Assassination of President Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln at Fords Theater during a performance of My American Cousin. Lincoln is pronounced dead early the next morning. William Seward and his family are attacked by Booth's co-conspirator, Lewis Powell.
Booth is Captured
John Wilkes Booth is captured in a barn in Virginia at the Garret's farm and is shot and killed by Boston Corbett.
The Fall of the Confederacy & The End of the Civil War
Davis was captured by Union forces in Georgia in May 1865, and sent to prison for two years. The Civil War officially ended on May 13, 1865, and the Confederate States of America ceased to exist.
The Grand Review of the Army
The Grand Review of the Army was from May 23 to May 24. This was a military procession and celebration in the national capital city of Washington after the Union victory of the Civil War.
The four conspirators in Lincoln's assassination are hanged. These men are Davide Harold, George Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, and Mary Surratt, while John Surratt was ablle to escape to Canada.
The 13th Amendment is Ratified
The 13th Amendment is finally ratified which abolished slavery in the United States.
The last issue of the Liberator is published. This newspaper was a was a weekly abolitionist newspaper. Due to the slaves being freed, the newspaper is unnecessary.
After the Civil War, some states passed black codes that severely limited the rights of black people. The new southern state legislatures passed restrictive “Black Codes” to control the labor and behavior of former enslaved people and other African Americans.
The Constitutional Convention of 1866
This convention was called to meet the requirements set forth by the United States for Texas's reentry into the Union. Texas previously seceded from the Union on February 1, 1861.
Civil Rights Act 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed. This declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens, "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
Peace with States
State of peace exists with several states, including: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.
New Hampshire Ratifies
Once the Civil War finished, Tennessee became the first state readmitted to the Union.
14th Amendment is Passed
Congress passes the 14th Amendment which would granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and enslaved people who had been emancipated after the American Civil War once ratified.
Congress Establishes General of the Armies
Ulysses S. Grant is immediately promoted to 4-star general and put in this position. William Tecumseh Sherman assumes the rank of Lt. General.
New Orleans Massacre
The New Orleans Massacre started when a peaceful demonstration of mostly Black Freedmen was set upon by a mob of white rioters. Many of the white rioters were found to be soldiers of the old Confederate States of America.
New Jersey Ratifies
New Jersey ratifies the 14th Amendment.
African American Males Have the Right to Vote
After a long time, African Americans are finally given the right to vote in Washington D.C.. However, only African American men are allowed to, not women. Congress over came President Johnson's veto to give the African Americans this right.
Nebraska Becomes a State
Nebraska became a part to the union as the 37th state, 2 years after the Civil War had ended. This state held some of the nation's best ranch land and farmland.
Tenure of Office Act
The Tenure of Office Act was a United States federal law in force from 1867 to 1887. This act restricted the power of the president to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.
First Reconstruction Act
This act outlined the terms for readmission to representation of rebel states. The bill divided the former Confederate states, except for Tennessee, into five military districts.
African Americans stage a ride on streetcars in New Orleans to protest segregation. At 5 o’clock two to five African American men entered a streetcar on the King Street line, and sat among the white customers. The men sitting refused to move, even after the conductor explained he had the right to remove them with force.
Alaska is Given to America
The US made an agreement, in which the US was able to take Alaska from Russia. The Treaty with Russia was negotiated and signed by Secretary of State William Seward and Russian Minister to the United States Edouard de Stoeckl.
Third Reconstruction Act
The Third Reconstruction Act separated the Confederate states into five military districts. It made new state constitutions that recognized voting rights of black men, and demanded state ratification of the 14th Amendment.
Ulysses S. Grant Becomes Secretary of War
Grant becomes the Secretary of War from August 12, 1867 to January 14, 1868. He was the Secretary of War under President Andrew Johnson.
Impeachment of Johnson is Considered
Congress looks into impeaching Johnson for his lack of effectiveness and unwillingness to follow through with reconstruction. He is later impeached on March 3, 1868 and was the first president to be impeached.
Johnson Suspends Stanton
Johnson fired Stanton and appointed an interim war secretary. Johnson made this decision after the two had a disagreement over reconstruction plans. Johnson places Ulysses S. Grant in the position.