The Census conducted in 1860 showed that of the roughly 31.5 million people in the United States nearly 4 million were enslaved. This was recounted by President Abraham Lincoln multiple times during the war.
Civil War Timespan
Timespan covering events that occured during the Civil War
Lincoln visits Five Points
Five points - known as one of, if not the biggest, slum orphanafes in America - is visited by Lincoln. His visits help him later in his campaigns as pictures of him and children are shown at Sunday school.
Pony Express Founded
With the need for a faster mail system, the Pony Express was created. Traveling more than 1,800 miles in a day, this train did many wonders for the people of the time as the first transcontinental telegraph system.
Henry Repeating Rifle
The Henry Repeating Rifle was only produced for six years but had a big impact on the Civil war. The .44 caliber demonstrated itself as a very effective weapon.
Election of 1860
James Buchanan is getting ready to leave the White House as presidential candidates Abraham Lincoln, John Breckenridge, John Bell, and Stephen Douglass all run for president.
After a very hard election, Lincoln beats his other runners. He wins with 180 electoral votes.
First Succession Meeting
Delegates are picked to go forward for the First Succession meeting. Held in Columbia, South Carolina, it was here that the South began to finalize seceding and did so 3 days later.
In December of 1860, US Senator John J. Crittenden tried to enshrine slavery permanently. This did not work as slavery at this time was very controversial and many already no longer wanted slavery.
South Carolina Secedes from the Union
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina, angry with the election of Abraham Lincoln, decides that it no longer wants to be associated with the Union and secedes from it.
The Christmas of 1860 was not an easy one. Although many celebrated its religious aspect, many across the country like Ben Tucker began to worry about the state of the country and realize that there was no stopping war at this point.
Confederate States of America
In rebellion against President Lincoln, all seceded states joined together to form the Confederate States of America, also known as the CSA.
After the formation of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis is elected the President in Montgomery, Alabama.
In an effort to try to keep the union united, Lincoln announces in his inaugural speech his plans for his presidency. He says that he wants to end slavery, but would not accept any succession.
Attack on Fort Sumter/ Start of the Civil War
In Charleston Harbor is Fort Sumter. When Jefferson Davis decides for have his forces attack the fort, President Abraham Lincoln decides it is enough and declares war.
Virginia Leaves Union
Angry with the election results, Virginia joins the states who have chosen to succeed from the Union. Although, this creates difficulty later when some Virginians do not want to do this.
In May of 1861, the Union constructed a plan made of three parts to defeat the Confederates.
Slave States to Stay in the Union
Although the four states Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri, were in favor of slavery they join the Union. This was mainly due to the political divide and military pressure.
General McClellan is Hired
President Lincoln, realizing that his army needs a structured and proper leader, replaces his current General Irvin McDowell. Instead, he hires General George McClellan.
The First Battle of Bull Run
The first official battle of the Civil War. Fought in Virginia, Union troops marched towards Richmond but are disorganized and have to retreat.
Battle of Springfield
A battle that proved the importance of German volunteers in the Army, given that over 200,000 Germans served for the Union, whilst less than 20,000 served for the Confederates.
Battle of Fort Henry
Taking place on the Tennesee River, this battle was very important for the Union. General Grant Invades the Confederates in Tennessee.
The Battle where General Ulysses S. Grant wins for the Union and coins his nickname "Unconditional Surrender" when he says "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender."
Battle of Hampton
During the Battle of Hampton, ships Merrimack and Monitor are brought out for the first time. They will become a very important defining part of the war on the ocean.
Battle of Shiloh
In Tennesse, the Confederates take General Grant by surprise very early in the morning. Grant counter-attacks and pushes the confederate army and pushes them back.
Stonewall Jackson pushes Union Forces Back
Thomas Jackson ("Stonewall" Jackson) commands his army to attack the union forces. The Union is forced to rush back to Washington, D.C. to protect it and protect themselves.
Seven Days Battle
After seven long days of battle in Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate army wins. This allows them to keep their capital safe for just a little bit longer.
African Americans join the war
After a bill is passed by congress, African Americans are allowed to join the Union army and fight for their own rights. Although, they are greatly mistreated and discriminated against by their colleagues.
Capture of New Orleans
In the late summer of 1862, the Union troops invade and attack the Confederates in New Orleans and are able to take possession of it. This is a huge morale deflation for the Confederacy, but the opposite for the Union.
When McClellan isn't fast enough to Harper's ferry after defeating Lee at South Mountain, he loses a large number of men and supplies on the ship.
Battle of Antietam
Battle in Maryland. McClellan is unable to attack the Confederates and allows them to retreat. This angers Lincoln and he fires McClellan for having "the slows." He later hires Ulysses S Grant to lead the Union army.
Given by Union President Lincoln, this frees any and all slaves living and working inside Confederate lines. Eventually becoming the 13th amendment.
First Conscription Act
The First Conscription Act was passed to produce the first draft of United States Citizens in the history of America.
Battle of Vicksburg
After Grant led the Union into winning this battle, they now split the Confederacy into two. This is because the Union now had control of the Mississippi River.
West Virginia Becomes a State
Unable to decide if they wanted to succeed as a state, Virginia splits into two and creates Virginia and West Virginia. In June of 1863, West Virginia is officially recognized as a part of the Union and Virginia as a succeeded state.
Battle of Gettysburg
This battle is considered the turning point of the Civil War. The Union winning this battle allowed for a boost in Northern Morale. Eventually, this helped them in winning the war.
New York Draft Riots
After a new federal draft law is passed, New York working-class citizens are angered. The riots started on the 13th of July and lasted 5 days. It was one of the bloodiest and most destructive in New York.
Robert E. Lee Tries to Resign
After his failure to succeed at the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee is burnt out and tries to resign. Although President Davis does not allow him to.
President Lincoln delivers his speech motivating the North to keep going, whilst honoring both the lives of the North and South that have been lost during the Battle and Gettysburg and the rest of the war.
Battle of Chattanooga
The Union army successfully breaks into the Confederate siege. This forces the Confederate Army into Georgia.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Lincoln gives this speech which says that anyone who was involved in the Confederacy would be excused for their actions, so long as they take an oath pledging their allegiance to the Union.
First Successful Submarine Attack of the Civil War
In February, the CSS H.L. Hunley attacks confederate submarines and breaks them apart until think sink. This is monumental as nothing as good as victory has ever happened before for submarine attacks in this war.
Battle of the Wilderness
This Battle in Chancellorsville, Virginia took place in the forest. When a nearby brush caught fire many men were caught in the flames and became fatally wounded or dead.
Fundraiser for the Sanitary Commission
Life during the civil war was not sanitary and hence the Sanitary Commission was created. It needed greater funds though, so in June of 1864, funds were raised through the President.
National Banking Act of 1864
This act was passed so that inside Union lines there was a system of national banks, there was one national currency, and another market for the Treasury securities.
With the next election coming up, it is all in the talks about who will be the candidates. On June 8th, Lincoln is put forward by his party as one of the candidates.
Battle in Tupelo
This battle in Mississippi in which the Union defeated the Confederates -led by Nathan Bedford Forrest- allowed for the security of supply lines of Sherman's that were in operation against them.
Battle of Atlanta
A battle (obviously) taking place in Atlanta, Georgia. In this battle, Union Generals Sherman and McPherson are successful in being able to defend themselves from the Confederacy. Eventually, this battle cuts off a supply center for the Confederates.
Andersonville prison was the roughest of them all. The South camps were brutal for captured men and a lot of them at that. August of 1864 was the time it was at its peak of men - nearly 33,000.
Lincoln's Second Term
In November of 1864, Lincoln is reelected for his second presidential term. Sherman's victory in Atlanta helped him very much in securing his second election.
Sherman's March to the Sea
General William T Sherman starts the "March to the Sea" in November of 1864 with 60,000 soldiers behind him. This March is so important because it weakened the Confederacy so much that it would lead to its eventual surrender.
Confederate Soldiers aware of the nearing end of the war set fire to Columbia, South Carolina. Known as some of the least disciplined soldiers, they set fire to the city’s railroad facilities, supply depots, etc.
Attack on Fort Stedman
Taking place in Petersburg, Virginia, this is known as "Lee's last offensive battle" because after this he is so worn out he doesn't fight as well as he is known to. By the end of this battle, Lee is able to capture a Union Fort.
First Surrender of the Confederacy
After Lee's troops are completely surrounded in Appomattox, Virginia, Lee surrenders his army. 3 days later the Army of Northern Virginia is officially surrendered.
Robert E. Lee's Farewell Address
The day after the surrender, Robert E. Lee makes his last speech. It is formally known as "General Order No. 9." He was very serious and solemn.
Assassination of President Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth was one of the many in the South enraged with the ending of the war in favor of the North. He seeks out Lincoln while he is watching a play and shoots him in the back of the head.
Near Irwinville Georgia, President Jefferson Davis is captured in the midst of all of his troops surrendering.
Official End to the Civil War
The official end to this war takes place after General Buckner surrenders the army of the Trans-Missippi, starting on May 26 and lasting over a week.
The First Juneteenth is celebrated in honor of the official announcement that all slaves are free in Texas. This releases more than 250,000.
Conspirators of Lincoln's death are Killed
Put on public display, 4 of the people who conspired to help assassinate President Lincoln- Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold and George Atzerodt- are executed and murdered.
After a long wait, the Thirteenth Amendment is finally added to the US Constitution. This declares that all men in the United States are equal and free.
Black Codes/Jim Crow Laws
The Jim Crow Laws were a set of laws passed directed toward black people about possessing most firearms, making or selling liquor, etc. These were instated all throughout 1866 to counteract the Civil Rights Act
Civil Rights Act of 1866
The first law passed in the United States to say that all citizens, regardless of race, are equally citizens and protected by the law.
When a white police officer attempts to arrest a black ex-soldier. When he did, 50 other black people showed up to stop this from happening. This continues for 2 days after May 1st and it becomes quite violent.
14th amendment passed
14th amendment is passed and says that anyone born in the United States is granted citizenship and can't be denied “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”
Klu Klux Klan Founded
Fighting to stop the Civil Rights efforts the Klu Klux Klan - also known as the KKK - formed in Tennesse, made up of Confederate veterans. They are a white supremacy group, that believes that anyone who is not white is inferior to them.
After the passing of the Army Organization Act, six calvary's and infantry regiments made up of all Black members are created.
Tennessee is readmitted as a state
After Tennessee ratifies the 14th amendment, it is allowed to rejoin the Union after Congress lets them in.
Ulysses S Grant Receives Title "General of the Army"
US Congress creates the ranking "General of the Army." (Also known as modern day 5-star general) The first person to receive this award will be Ulysses S Grant for his efforts in the Civil War.
8-hour work day
The newly organized National Labour Union comes together to ask Congress to officiate an eight-hour workday. Although they are not able to accomplish their own goals, they make labor issues much more aware to the public.
Johnson Reconstructionist Attempts
In an effort to gain support for the Reconstructionist ideals, President Johnson goes on speaking tours and talks about these of his policies, among some of his others.
African Americans can Vote
January of 1867, people of color will officially be allowed to vote in the next election. The was granted by Washington, D.C.
Acts passed by the U.S. government that outlined what the states of the confederacy would have to do to be readmitted into the Union.
2nd Reconstruction Act
Despite the veto from President Andrew Jackson, the second Reconstruction act is overruled by Congress and put into effect to help civil rights.
One of the very big conflicts after the civil war has to do with cars and parking, The Tribune would continue to take blows at the government, specifically in April when they said "All these discriminations that had slavery at the bottom have become nonsense."
Black Voter Registration
For the first time in history, the South begins to allow black people to have the Constitutional right to vote.
Alaska joins the U.S.
The United States officially buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars. (roughly $140,647,621.62 today)
President Andrew Johnson offers amnesty, an official pardon for those with political offenses, to most of those in charge of the confederacy. This was offered to over 13,000.
South Carolina Jurors
General Canby tells South Carolina that they must impanel black people as jurors. Impanel means to enlist someone as a juror.
1st All Black University
Howard University is created in Washington D.C. This is being the first all-black university and one of the first public options for non-white education.
Medicine Lodge Treaty
This treaty is signed to end the fighting of Native Americans after many years of fighting in territories such as Oklahoma and Kansas.