Civil War Timeline- English By Sarah.English Period: Jan 1, 1860 to Dec 31, 1867 Civil War Timespan Apr 3, 1860 The Pony Express Begins The Pony Express was an American express mail service that used relays of horse mounted riders. It operated from April 3, 1860 to October 26, 1861, between Missouri and California. Apr 23, 1860 National Democratic Nomination Convention On April 23, 1860, Democrats meet in Charleston North Carolina to identify a nominee for the presidential election. May 9, 1860 Constitutional Union Convention The Constitutional Union Party held their first convention to identify a nominee for the presidential election on May 9, 1860. May 16, 1860 Republican National Convention On May 16, 1860, the Republican party held its second national convention for the presidential election in Chicago, Illinois. Jun 18, 1860 Democrats Second Convention From June 18 to June 23, the democrats held a second convention for the 1860 presidential election in Baltimore, Maryland. Oct 16, 1860 Henry Repeating Rifle Benjamin Henry perfects the Henry rifle, used in considerable numbers by certain Union army units in the American Civil War. Nov 6, 1860 Abraham Lincoln Elected as President Abraham Lincoln is elected as the sixteen president of the United States, the first Republican president in the nation who represents a party opposing the spread of slavery in the territories. Dec 17, 1860 First Secession Convention The first Secession Convention meets in Colombia, South Carolina. Dec 18, 1860 The Crittenden Compromise Fails The Crittenden Compromise was an unsuccessful proposal to permanently enshrine slavery in the United States Constitution, and thereby make it unconstitutional for future congresses to end slavery. Dec 20, 1860 South Carolina Secedes From The Union In 1860, the state of South Carolina officially withdraws from the United States of America. 1861 Prevent Confederate Threat To prevent the Confederate threat in northern Virginia, earthworks and forts are engineered to surround the City of Washington and to add to protection Feb 8, 1861 Seceded Southern States Create Government The southern states that seceded create a government at Montgomery, Alabama, and the Confederate States of America are formed. Apr 12, 1861 Civil War has Begun Southern forces fire upon Fort Sumter, South Carolina. The Civil War has formally begun. Apr 15, 1861 Stop the Rebellion President Lincoln issues a public declaration that an insurrection exists and calls for 75,000 militia to stop the rebellion. Jun 3, 1861 Clash of Union and Confederate Forces A skirmish near Philippi in western Virginia, is the first clash of Union and Confederate forces in the east. Jun 10, 1861 Battle of Civil War; Big Bethel Battle of Big Bethel, the first land battle of the war in Virginia. Jul 21, 1861 Battle of Bull Run The Battle of Bull Run is fought near Manassas, Virginia. Aug 10, 1861 Battle of Wilson's Creek The Confederate victory at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri emphasizes the strong southern presence. Aug 28, 1861 Fort Hatteras falls to Union Naval Fort Hatteras at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, falls to Union naval forces which begins the Union efforts to close southern ports. Oct 21, 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff Battle of Ball's Bluff, Virginia turned into a retreat with many soldiers drowning while trying to recross the icy waters of the Potomac River. Jan 19, 1862 Battle of Mill Springs The Union victory weakened the Confederate hold on the state at the Battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky. Feb 6, 1862 Surrender of Fort Henry The loss of this southern fort on the Tennessee River opened the door to Union control of the river at the Surrender of Fort Henry, Tennessee. Feb 8, 1862 Battle of Roanoke Island A Confederate defeat at the Battle of Roanoke Island resulted in Union occupation of eastern North Carolina Feb 16, 1862 Surrender of Fort Donelson The Surrender of Fort Donelson, Tennessee left the river in Union hands. Union General Ulysses S. Grant gained his nickname "Unconditional Surrender" here. Feb 22, 1862 Jefferson Davis Inaugurated as President Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as President of the Confederate States of America. Apr 4, 1862 Battle of Shiloh The Battle of Shiloh was the first major battle in Tennessee. May 31, 1862 Battle of Seven Pines The Battle of Seven Pines began near Richmond, Virginia. Jun 25, 1862 Seven Days' Battles The Seven Days' Battles before Richmond begun. Aug 30, 1862 Battle of Second Bull Run The Battle of Second Bull Run was fought on the same ground as the year before and the Union army was defeated Aug 30, 1862 Battle of Second Bull Run The Battle of Second Bull Run was fought on the same ground as the year before and the Union army was defeated Sep 17, 1862 Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam, Maryland was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War. Sep 17, 1862 Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam, Maryland was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War. Jan 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect and was applauded by many abolitionists. 1863 Siege of Chattanooga The Siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee begun and there were immediate plans to relieve the besieged Union army. Mar 3, 1863 Conscription in North Conscription, or the drafting of soldiers into military service, begins in the North as it had already begun in the South the year before. May 1, 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville The Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia begins. May 18, 1863 Siege of Vicksburg Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi begins. Jun 28, 1863 Gettysburg Campaign The Gettysburg Campaign continues and Southern cavalry fight with Union militia near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Jul 1, 1863 Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania begins and is the bloodiest battle of the Civil War regarding Robert E. Lee's hopes for a successful invasion of the North. Jul 10, 1863 Union Naval and Land Forces Union naval and land forces attack Confederate defenses near Charleston, South Carolina. Nov 23, 1863 Battle of Chattanooga The Battle for Chattanooga begun and Union forces break the Confederate siege of the city in successive attacks. Dec 8, 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction On December 8, 1863, Lincoln issues his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. Feb 17, 1864 Successful Submarine Attack The first Successful Submarine Attack of the Civil War took place on this day. Mar 10, 1864 Red River Campaign A combined force of army and navy commands begin a campaign on the Red River in Louisiana. May 7, 1864 Atlanta Campaign Beginning of the Atlanta Campaign where General William T. Sherman marched south against the Confederate Army of Tennessee. May 8, 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania Court House Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia begins and Lee successfully stalls Grant's drive toward Richmond. Jun 1, 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor The relentless and bloody Union attacks fail to dislodge Lee's army at the Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia. Jun 8, 1864 Abraham Lincoln Nomination Abraham Lincoln is nominated by his party for a second term as president. Aug 31, 1864 Battle of Jonesborough The final southern counterattack against Union troops outside the city of Atlanta fails at the Battle of Jonesborough, Georgia. Sep 1, 1864 Fall of Atlanta, Georgia Confederate troops under General Hood evacuate the city of Atlanta and Sherman's army uses the city's defenses the following day. Nov 16, 1864 March to the Sea General Sherman's Army of Georgia begins the "March to the Sea" Dec 15, 1864 Battle of Nashville The Confederate Army under John Bell Hood is defeated and the threat to Tennessee ends. Jan 15, 1865 Capture of Fort Fisher The assault and capture of Fort Fisher, North Carolina occurred on January 15, 1865. Apr 1, 1865 Battle of Five Forks The Confederate defeat initiates General Lee's decision to abandon the Petersburg-Richmond siege lines. Apr 2, 1865 Fall of Petersburg and Richmond General Lee abandons both Petersburg and Richmond and moves his army west in hopes of joining Confederate forces. Apr 9, 1865 End of the Civil War The Civil War officially ends. Apr 26, 1865 Signed Surrender Document General Joseph Johnston signs the surrender document for the Confederate Army of the Tennessee and southern troops May 10, 1865 Capture of Jefferson Davis Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured near Irwinville, Georgia. May 12, 1865 Final Battle at Palmito Ranch The final battle of the Civil War occurs at Palmito Ranch, Texas. The battle results in a Confederate victory. May 23, 1865 Review of Potomac Army The Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac in Washington, DC. May 24, 1865 Review of Sherman's Army The Grand Review of General Sherman's Army in Washington, DC. May 26, 1865 Surrender of the Army General Simon Bolivar Buckner enters into terms for surrender of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi. Mar 21, 1866 National Soldiers' Homes The United States Congress authorizes national soldiers' homes. Apr 1, 1866 Rejected Presidential Veto The United States Congress rejects presidential veto giving all equal rights. Apr 2, 1866 Andrew Johnson ends Civil War President Andrew Johnson ends Civil War in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia Apr 9, 1866 Civil Rights Bill The Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson's veto. Apr 10, 1866 ASPCA The American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is created. May 1, 1866 American Equal Rights On May 1, 1866, the American Equal Rights Association forms. May 16, 1866 Nickel Production The US Congress authorizes the nickel 5 cent piece on May 16, 1866. Jul 28, 1866 Metric System The Metric system becomes a legal measurement system in the United States. Jul 30, 1866 New Orleans's Democratic Government The New Orleans's Democratic government orders police to raid a Republican Party meeting which killed 40 people and injured 150. Aug 20, 1866 Andrew Johnson Declares Civil War Over President Andrew Johnson formally declares US Civil War over. Mar 1, 1867 Nebraska Becomes A State On March 1, 1867, President Andrew Johnson signed the proclamation declaring Nebraska as a state. Mar 2, 1867 Department of Education The United States Congress creates the Department of Education Mar 2, 1867 Tenure of Office Act Enacted The Tenure of Office Act was a United States federal law that restricted the power of the president to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. Mar 2, 1867 Congress Passes Reconstruction Acts The Reconstruction Acts outlined the conditions under which the Southern states would be readmitted to the Union. Mar 29, 1867 Lincoln Memorial The United States Congress approves the building of Lincoln Memorial. Mar 30, 1867 Territory of Alaska Purchased On March 30, 1867, the United States made an agreement to purchase Alaska from Russia for a price of $7.2 million. Mar 31, 1867 Reconstructuion of South The Reconstruction of Sound ends on March 31, 1867. Jun 27, 1867 Bank of California Opens On June 27, 1867, the doors of the California Stockton Bank opens. Aug 28, 1867 US Takes Possession of Midway Atoll The United States took formal possession of Midway Atoll in August of 1867 by Captain William Reynolds of the USS Lackawanna. Sep 28, 1867 Toronto, Ontario Toronto becomes capital of Ontario on September 28, 1867.