Before the Civil War, slavery was common in the United States and plantation owners were stubborn in their belief that it was part of their culture and that they did absolutely not want it to be taken away or challenged. However, more people started to disagree with this, since it wasn't ethical or moral.
The Underground Railroad, or a system put in place by abolitionists and freed slaves, helps slaves escape their plantations and lead independent lives. However, this also stirs up more discourse over the topic of slavery and what to do about it in regard to the federal government.
Regarding African slave trade
While the African slave trade is banned, plantation owners do not stop forcing slaves to do unpaid labor, but also continue trading and importing slaves illegally, taking people from their homes. This continues for a long time.
United States Civil War
The Pony Express is created, allowing mail and information to travel faster. It's run by people on horses, and it's basically an older version of a mail carrier. This allowed people to send and receive messages before morse code became more popular.
Lincoln is elected president
Abraham Lincoln is elected president of the United States. Since he and his political party opposed slavery, this created discourse in the nation. This kicked off the idea of seceding from the nation for some states, and the Southern states were the first to leave.
Lincoln v Douglass debates end
When Lincoln is elected, the political debates between him and Douglass are ended with it. The main debates were what the future of slavery should look like, and Lincoln wanted to abolish it while Douglass wanted to keep it as a part of the country.
Secession Convention delegates elected
After Lincoln was elected, Southern states got mad that slavery would be taken away from them. They decided to make a secession convention, but first, they needed delegates. They elected their delegates and prepared to secede.
First Secession Convention takes place
After the first Secession Convention, the delegates decide that South Carolina should be the first state to secede. This later happened to ten more states as well, but South Carolina was the first to become a separate nation from the Union.
South sends commissioners
South Carolina, after having seceded from the Union, sends commissioners to the capital of the nation, Washinton D.C. While there, negotiations are made to discuss and deal with the property of South Carolina, as well as federal issues that arise due to the state leaving.
Crittenden Compromise is proposed
The Crittenden Compromise, proposed by John J. Crittenden, was a compromise for the federal government that would make it impossible to abolish slavery. In his compromise, he suggested that the government should also reimburse owners of runaway slaves. He believed it would stop the coming Civil War, but it was never accepted, as more people believed slaves should have rights.
Confederacy is formed
After seven states have seceded from Union, they joined together to create their own nation: the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis was named the president. The Confederacy believed that white people were better than everyone else, and tried to fight for keeping slavery legal while the Union opposed slavery and was trying to abolish it.
The Civil War begins when the South attacks the North in South Carolina at Fort Sumter, the first shots of the war. No one was killed, but the South won a couple of days later when the North surrendered their base.
Battle of Big Bethel
Being the first battle in Virginia, Confederate troops and supporters were planted and living in the town of Big Bethel. When the Union tried to fight them off, the Confederate forces were stronger and the Union had to retreat.
Battle of Philippi
The Union surprises the Confederacy with an attack in West Virginia. They're trying to protect railroads, and come out victorious. Although this fight isn't really considered a battle, it still boosts morale. The Confederacy retreated east.
Virginia breaks up
Divided by the war and the Union and Confederacy, Virginia breaks up by the counties of Virginia and West Virginia. West Virginia became part of the Union and was officially recognized as a state.
Battle of Bull Run
Being the first big battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Bull Run took place in Virginia just like Fort Sumter. It ended with the Confederacy being victorious, and McClellan was put into office as a general for the Union, though he would later be removed for being too slow to react.
Battle of Wilson's Creek
The Union tries to attack the Confederacy and does well, but is forced to retreat due to lack of ammunition. While the Confederacy is in no shape to go after them, they still consider it a victory. This gives them the southern part of Mississippi.
Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries
The Union captures the Confederacy's Fort Hatteras in North Carolina. This gives them the confidence to go ahead and capture ports in Carolina as well, to take the COnfederacy's access to ships.
First Battle of Lexington
The first Battle of Lexing is won by the Confederacy, and they win the land of Lexington, Missouri. General Sterling Price from the Confederacy gets the credit for this since he was leading the troops during this time.
Battle of Ball's Bluff
The Union tried to surprise attack the Confederacy in Virginia, but they mistook trees for a camp and ruined their surprise. They ended up having to retreat back to the river they came from when the Confederacy found them, but a lot of them ended up drowning and found it safer to just surrender to the Confederacy.
Battle of Mill Springs
The Union attacks the Confederacy and comes out victorious, able to call Kentucky their own state since they captured it. This win increased North morale significantly as well.
Battle of Roanoke Island
Deciding to attack the Confederacy with ships through the Outer Banks, the Union outnumbered their opponents by more than triple the number of men. While the Union suffered more casualties, they won the battle.
Battle of Pea Ridge
In northwest Arkansas, there is a battle in which the Union wins, although it follows through until the next day. It allowed the Union to gain control of Arkansas and Missouri.
Battle of Shiloh
Although the Union lost a large number of casualties, it was still a major win for them since they were able to keep the Confederacy out of Mississippi and defeated one of their best generals.
First Battle of Winchester
The Confederacy wins this battle thanks to the help of General Stonewall Jackson, who is named for his ability to stand strong in battle. He's later shot down by his own men on accident.
Battle of Seven Pines
This battle was said to be a victory by both the Union and the Confederacy since both of them suffered important losses such as generals or land. Robert E. Lee is brought into the Confederate army.
Battle of Memphis
This was an extremely short battle, lasting only ninety minutes as citizens were able to watch. It took place in the sea with battleships, and the Confederates came out victorious.
The Seven Days' Battles
During this long battle, the Union attempted to capture the Confederate's capital, Richmond, Virginia. However, since Robert E. Lee was just put in charge, they failed, and the victory went to the Confederacy.
The Battle of Antietam
Although Robert E. Lee, a strong general, invades the Union, the Union still wins this battle. However, this battle is one of the ones with the most casualties due to new and deadly weapons, and both sides suffer from it.
The Battle of Fredericksburg
The Union loses this battle led by Robert E. Lee, and the largest amount of soldiers fight in this war. It was also one of the more deadlier battles.
Lincoln issued a proclamation that all slaves, no matter where they are, are free and no longer forced to work without pay. Although this didn't exactly work, it was a stepping stone to ending slavery.
Battle of Stones River
The Battle of Stones River is won by the Union, which gives them a confidence boost after their previous loss to the Confederacy. However, they suffered their largest amount of casualties and had to wait for a while before they were at their best again.
Conscription, which had already been taking place in the South due to low soldier numbers, starts in the North as well. It's when the army tells you that you must fight for them for a certain amount of time.
The Battle of Chancellorsville
Although all odds were placed against the Confederacy with a low number of troops, they still won with Robert E. Lee in the lead. This disappointed the Union a lot and lowered their morale as well.
Battle of Brandy Station
This battle was won by the Confederacy because of Robert E. Lee's ability to keep secrets and lead surprise attacks on the Union.
Battle of Second Winchester
This battle was a major win for the Confederacy. It actually even chased the Union away from Winchester completely and allowed the Confederacy to invade the Union.
The Battle of Gettysburg
Robert E. Lee's previous plan to invade the Union ended here, and it was a major turning point for the war. Without the Union's victory here, they might've lost the whole war.
Second Assault on Battery Wagner
Although the Union won the major turning point of the war, they still lost this battle to the Confederacy. After chasing the Union out, they remained there for a while in case they came back, then later abandoned the fort.
The Battle of Chickamauga
Although the Confederates lost a large number of soldiers and suffered greatly during this battle, they still came out victorious. The Union was forced to surrender, but the Confederates needed a break.
The Battle for Chattanooga
The Union finally won this battle when they were invaded by the Confederacy. This win allowed the Union to use this land to create a communication base along with materials and supplies for troops.
Battle of Sabine Crossroads
The Union tried invading the Confederacy in Louisianna but eventually failed after Richard Taylor led Confederate forces to drive the Union out.
Battle of Pleasant Hill
Marching to the Union at the night, the Confederacy planned to attack early in the day. While the Union was caught off guard initially, they were able to barely regain their footing on the battle and held themselves well, resulting in their victory.
Battle of the Wilderness
Neither side won or lost in this battle, although it lasted more than one day. Although the Union suffered greatly, General Grant from the Union promised Lincoln that he would not retreat, so he didn't.
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
This battle resulted in no winners as well. This time, both sides suffered greatly, and while the Union tried their best multiple times to attack with all their force to break Confederate lines, they couldn't.
Battle of Yellow Tavern
In this battle, the Union raided the Confederacy. Both sides suffered casualties, but not nearly as many as in previous battles. The Union eventually won.
Battle of Resaca
William T. Sherman marches his people from the Union into Georgia, but is halted for a while in battle by the Confederacy trying to stop them. However, the Union wins and continues marching into Confederate land.
Battle of Cold Harbor
Trying to invade the Confederacy, the Union marches into Cold Harbor. However, Robert E. Lee is able to stop them and force the Union to retreat. The Union was able to retreat with a good amount of their people but still suffered many losses.
Battle of Brice's Crossroads
Fought on Union land, the Confederates won this battle. However, they suffered a large number of casualties while doing it.
Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
The Union attempted to invade Confederate land once again, and once again, the Confederacy won this battle. The Union suffered more losses than the Confederacy.
Battle of Monocacy
Marching into Maryland, the Confederacy tried to invade the Union. However, just like the Union, they seemed to have bad luck with invading, since they failed and the Union won this battle.
Organizations that still believe in white supremacy, although the war has already ended and the people have reached their conclusion, form together and continue to say that their way should be followed.
13th amendment is passed
Lincoln passes the 13th amendment, which states that slaves are no longer bound to their masters and that slavery is officially abolished in the United States.
Sherman marches once again
Sherman, leading another march, makes his way through Confederate land and through South Carolina, attacking and burning everything they see.
Enlistment of slaves in south
Jefferson Davis signs a law that allows slaves to work in the army to fight the Union. He encourages them to do so by telling them not the truth, but that they are being invaded and attacked by North aggression.
The Battles of Averasborough and Bentonville
These battles, with no conclusive winner, were the beginning of a series of other battles in which the Union won, finally boosting Union morale again and letting them see that they could win after a series of defeating losses.
The Battle of Five Forks
This battle was important to the Confederacy because if they reached the Railroad on the other side of the Five Forks, they would have access to transportation routes that would get them more supplies. However, the Union won this battle, so they never got it.
The Battle of Sailor's Creek
The Union won this battle, and the Confederate lost it so badly that it came to be known as the Black Thursday because over one-fourth of their people died.
Battle of Appomattox Court House
Robert E. Lee was forced to surrender to the Union, allowing them to win and giving them a large morale boost. This started to light negotiations that began the end of the Civil War.
President Lincoln is assassinated
President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated at a theater by John Wilkes Booth, one of the actors at the theater. He shoots him in the head, and this happens because of a lack of security and people didn't expect a threat to come from inside.
Jefferson Davis is captured
The president of the Confederate army is captured and held in Georgia by the Union. This resulted in the Civil War ending swiftly after this.
The Confederacy officially surrenders, and the Civil War comes to an end. However, there are lasting effects that continue on past this point.
Confederate states band together
The previous states that were part of the Confederacy don't give up their fight and attempted to create a law stating that African Americans couldn't do some things, including own property or make contracts. This was fixed later on.
Civil rights act is vetoed
The president of the United States at the time, President Andrew Johnson, originally vetoed this act. It came up later in April again, but he again vetoed it.
Civil rights act is finally passed
Finally, after a two-thirds majority won over President Andrew Johnson's veto, the Civil Rights Act was passed, and equality was legally granted to all people in the United States. However, this act did not become officially ratified until a couple of years later.
Discourse among nation
After the war was officially ended, there was still much discomfort between the two sides that came together. Many people were glad that rights were won for the African American population in the country, but many still didn't believe that it should've been that way. This fight would continue for years after, and shockingly even still exists today.
Civil rights act
This act, passed by Congress, said that all citizens of the United States, no matter their race, are equal. However, it wasn't passed at first.
American Rights Association
The American Rights Association, a group created to "secure equal rights to all American citizens", is formed and taking action in the nation.
Congress, passing the 14th amendment, states that it is now the law that African Americans can now be legal citizens, and are not just slaves anymore. They now are one step closer to gaining full rights.
Tennesee and the Union
Tennesee, one of the states that seceded to join the Confederacy, is brought back into the Union and the United States of America.
President Andrew John
President Andrew Johnson, the next in line after Lincoln was assassinated, formally declares to the nation that the Civil War is over.
African Americans in government
In Massachusetts, two African Americans join the government and became part of the Legislature for the first time in America. They are a lawyer from Charleston and a printer from Boston.
A weird moment where the Reconstruction Acts were in process, and the states that weren't part of the nation again yet were having their government and military deemed false.
African Americans are given the right to vote for the first time in Washington, D.C. in the United States.
1st Reconstruction Act
The first of the many acts to bring the nation back together is put into place.
2nd Reconstruction Act
The second act in the series to bring the nation back together. However, this time, it is vetoed by the president. However, the veto is turned over.
The Lincoln memorial statue is approved by Congress to be built, and construction on it begins soon after.
African American voting
In Alabama, African Americans vote for the first time. As the number of states where they can vote increases, so does the possibility of them receiving more rights that they've been denied.
While the south is still being rebuilt back into the nation, voter registration becomes available for people of color.
African Americans congregate in New Orleans to protest the segregation of people of color from white people, a sign that things are still not equal for them.
3rd Reconstruction Act
In order to bring the rest of the states back into the nation, these acts were put into place to slowly bring them back in and state the rules they would follow as they were brought back. This is all once again, despite the president's veto.
Congress creates an all-black university and calls it Howard U. It's located in the nation's capital.