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Civil War Timeline- Neenan

By neenane
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    Civil War

    A timeline of the most significant events taking place during the Civil War
  • Senator Jefferson Davis Speaks for Slavery

    Senator Jefferson Davis Speaks for Slavery
    Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis speaks about why slavery should be allowed in the territories. He also argues that slaveholders should be protected.
  • Cooper Union Address

    Cooper Union Address
    Lincoln gives the Cooper Union Address in which he validates the Federal Government banning slavery in New Territories. This was a very influential speech and people believe it is what won him the presidency.
  • The Pony Express

    The Pony Express
    The Pony Express is founded, operating between April 1860- October 1861. It travailed all the way from St. Joseph to Sacramento and was made up of riders on horseback that would deliver mail. This was replaced later with the telegraph.
  • Convention in South Carolina

    Convention in South Carolina
    There is a Democratic convention held in Charleston, South Carolina. This was because they were to nominate a candidate for presidency. The party was divided. They would later meet again after Lincoln was elected on December 20, when South Carolina secedes. The meeting plan would later become known as the secession hall.
  • Lincoln is selected as a Candidate

    Lincoln is selected as a Candidate
    Supporting the republican party, Abraham Lincoln is selected as a candidate to run for president.
  • The U.S Government Establishes its First Printing Office

    The U.S Government Establishes its First Printing Office
    The government printing office would print and bind information that would be stored and documented by the government. It also distributed printing supplies to other government offices.
  • Lincoln is Elected President

    Lincoln is Elected President
    Lincoln is elected president by a landslide. With the North's support, Lincoln won the popular vote as well as the electoral vote.
  • Crittenden Compromise

    Crittenden Compromise
    This was proposed by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden and it was in attempt to prevent the Civil War. The compromise included the guarantee and permanence of slavery in the slave states and re-drew the slave and free state border lines that were originally in the Missouri compromise.
  • South Carolina Secedes

    South Carolina Secedes
    Being the first state in the South to secede, South Carolina pulls away, leading to a string of other southern states to leave the U.S following Lincoln's election.
  • South Carolina's Declaration

    South Carolina's Declaration
    South Carolina issues their "Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Seccession of South Carolina from the Federal Union" Which is essentially their Declaration of Independence.
  • Mississippi Secedes

    Mississippi Secedes
    Following shortly after South Carolina, Mississippi is the next state to secede from the United States to join to Confederate States
  • Florida Secedes

    Florida Secedes
    The day after Mississippi, Florida secedes from the United States to join the Confederate States
  • Alabama Secedes

    Alabama Secedes
    The day after Florida, Alabama secedes from the United States for the Confederate States
  • Georgia Secedes

    Georgia Secedes
    Georgia Secedes from the United States after Alabama to join the Confederate States.
  • Louisiana Secedes

    Louisiana Secedes
    Louisiana secedes from the United States days after Georgia to join the Confederate States.
  • Texas Secedes

    Texas Secedes
    Texas secedes from the Untied States days after Louisiana to join the Confederate States.
  • The Battle of Fort Sumter

    The Battle of Fort Sumter
    This is considered the opening scene of the war. War was declared when the confederates demanded the surrender of the fort and the Union refused. Forced to be the aggressor, the confederates fired on the fort. There were no causalities but the south had made the first move, officially starting the war.
  • Virginia Secedes

    Virginia Secedes
    Months after the last state, Texas seceded, Virginia secedes from the United States.
  • Arkansas Secedes

    Arkansas Secedes
    About a month following Virginia, Arkansas secedes from the United States.
  • North Carolina Secedes

    North Carolina Secedes
    Shortly after Arkansas, North Carolina secedes from the United States.
  • Tennessee Secedes

    Tennessee Secedes
    Being the last of the southern states to secede, Tennessee secedes from the United States shortly after North Carolina.
  • The Battle of Bull Run

    The Battle of Bull Run
    Considered the first major battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Bull Run took place in a little creek outside of Washington D.C in
    Manassas, Virginia 3 months after Fort Sumter. The Union is too disorganized and retreats, the confederates to tired to follow them.
  • Jefferson Davis is Elected

    Jefferson Davis is Elected
    Jefferson Davis is elected President of the Confederate States of America. Davis ran without opposition and this election confirmed the decision made by the Confederate Congress earlier in the year.
  • The Union Captures Roanoke Island

    The Union Captures Roanoke Island
    General Ambrose Burnside leads a Union force and captures Roanoke Island. This victory effectively gives the union control of North Carolina's ports (except Wilmington) making it more difficult for the Confederacy to get supplies.
  • Battle of Fort Donelson

    Battle of Fort Donelson
    The Union capture of the Confederate fort near Tennessee-Kentucky border.
  • "Unconditional Surrender"

    "Unconditional Surrender"
    Union General Ulysses S Grant became known as "Unconditional Surrender" Grant when he leads the Union forces to not surrender and the Confederates end up surrendering at the Battle of Fort Donelson.
  • Jefferson Davis is Inaugurated

    Jefferson Davis is Inaugurated
    Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as the President of the Confederate States of America after being elected in November.
  • Battle of New Bern

    Battle of New Bern
    A Union Victory, General Ambrose Burnside led 11,000 soldiers into the town to find that the Confederates has burned it in anticipation of the Union coming.
  • Shiloh

    Taking place near a church in Tennessee named Shiloh, this battle would show the importance of using scouts, trench warfare and building fortifications.
  • Siege of Fort Pulaski

    Siege of Fort Pulaski
    Union forces bombard the fort and with new rifle cannons, are able to breech the walls within 2 days. This fort guards access to Savannah Georgia.
  • Siege of Fort Macon

    Siege of Fort Macon
    After a month long siege, the Union captures Fort Macon
  • The Second Battle of Bull Run

    The Second Battle of Bull Run
    This battle occurred for a second time from August 29-30 near Manassas Virginia. This battle ended in the Confederates driving the Union out of Virginia.
  • The Battle of Antietam

    The Battle of Antietam
    Fought along Antietam Creek at Sharpsburg, Maryland, this was one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. Led by McClellan, the Union lost over 12,000 men and this is the point that swayed Lincoln to fire McClellan.
  • Lincoln Relieves McClellan of his Duties

    Lincoln Relieves McClellan of his Duties
    Due to McClellan's hesitation and caution in leading the Union, Lincoln relieves McClellan of his title. McClellan misses multiple chances to end the Civil War but is too cautious to do it.
  • Battle of Stone River

    Battle of Stone River
    Fought for 3 days, the Battle of Stone River was fought in the middle of Tennessee. Both sides take heavy causalities. Confederate General Braggs withdraws and the Union maintains control of the central Tennessee area.
  • Emancipation Proclomation

    Emancipation Proclomation
    Lincoln writes the Emancipation Proclamation to free all slaves in the south. At the time, it is a pointless document because the southern states had seceded but when they re-join, it frees all slaves.
  • Major General Daniel Harvey Hill

     Major General Daniel Harvey Hill
    Major General Daniel Harvey Hill takes command of Confederate forces in North Carolina.
  • Lincoln's attempt for more Soldiers

    Lincoln's attempt for more Soldiers
    Lincoln offers a full pardon to the thousands of Union deserters if they surrender and return to their units. At this point in the war, both sides of the war have massive desertion rates.
  • Civil War Conscription Act

    Civil War Conscription Act
    For the first time in U.S history, congress passes a wartime draft of U.S citizens between the ages of 20 and 45.
  • North Carolina's Draft

    North Carolina's Draft
    North Carolina issues and order drafting slaves and men between 18-45 from counties in the central part of the state. Most of the men are sent to Wilmington.
  • The Battle of Chancellorsville

    The Battle of Chancellorsville
    In Spotsylvania County, Virginia, the battle begins, ending May 6. Stonewall Jackson is accidentally shot by his own men and due to General Lee's planning, it is a major Confederate win.
  • Stonewall Jackson Dies

    Stonewall Jackson Dies
    Days after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Stonewall's arm is amputated and he dies of pneumonia. He is buried in Lexington, Virginia.
  • The North Carolina Powder Manufacturing Company Explodes

    The North Carolina Powder Manufacturing Company Explodes
    Resulting in the death of five men, 700 pounds of gunpowder explodes in the factory located at the Tuckaseegee Ford on the Catawba River. This is detrimental to the Confederacy because they need to gun powder, so the mill is rebuilt.
  • The Battle of Brandy Station

    The Battle of Brandy Station
    With the Victory in Chancellorsville, Lee decided to launch a second Northern invasion. This was the largest cavalry battle in North American history. There is no definite winner of the battle but the Union suffered more causalities then the Confederates.
  • West Virginia becomes a State

    West Virginia becomes a State
    Becoming the 35th State, Virginia splits and West Virginia joins the Union.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    Considered the turning point of the war, Gettysburg lasted from July 1- July 3 and was a Union victory that would boost morale. It was considered the bloodiest battle of the Civil War and Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address to dedicate some of the field as a resting place for fallen soldiers.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    After the Battle of Gettysburg, Lincoln gives his infamous Gettysburg Address, which would dedicate a cemetery for the fallen soldiers.
  • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction

    Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
    Lincoln states his plan of re-united the United States along with his Proclamation of Amnesty. This proclamation addressed areas of concern for post Civil War issues when the confederate states re-joined the U.S
  • Anderson

    The Confederate Prison Camp Andersonville had its first day of operation with 500 prisoners of war. The camp would be known as the worst camp in the Civil War. It had an insufficient water and food supply and unsanitary conditions. The prison also operated at over 4 times its maximum capacity.
  • The Coinage Act

    The Coinage Act
    Congress passed the "Coinage Act" which states that all coins used as U.S currency must be engraved which the phrase, " In God we Trust"
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    Overland Campaign

    The Overland Campaign is a series of battles fought in Virginia that caused irreparable damage to the Army of Northern Virginia. It would also be considered the beginning of the end of the Confederacy.
  • Battle of Piedmont

    Battle of Piedmont
    The Battle of Piedmont was fought in Augusta County and resulted in a Union Victory.
  • Civil War Gold Hoax

    Civil War Gold Hoax
    Two American journalists Joseph Howard Jr. and Francis Mallison attempted to use the uneasiness of people during the war to profit. They attempted to circulated a false proclamation from Lincoln in the papers which stated a conscription of 400,000 men. This would cause a panic and people would abandon the Union money and buy gold. With the inflation in gold, the newspapers would make more money and the two men would profit. However within days of the paper being published, it was shut down.
  • Battle of Cold Harbor

    Battle of Cold Harbor
    The Union Army, led by Ulysses S. Grant, was moving south toward Richmond Virginia. Just 10 miles short of Richmond was Cold Harbor where from May 31-June 12, would be a battle in which both sides stood ground. Grant ordered multiple attacks until June 3 and then after until June 12, they held fire. By the 12th, Grant withdrew and moved South and East. This resulted in a Confederate victory.
  • Battle of Fort Stevens

    Battle of Fort Stevens
    Taking place in what is now Northwest Washington D.C, the Battle of Fort Stevens was a Union Victory. This battle would be the last Rebel invasion of a Northern State during the Civil War.
  • Battle of Tom's Brook

    Battle of Tom's Brook
    As they moved down Shenandoah River valley, the Union troops turned on their Confederate trailers and then began the battle of Tom's Brook. Confederates were outnumbered 2 to 1 and forced to retreat.
  • Lincoln is Re-elected

    Lincoln is Re-elected
    With the recent Union Victories, Lincoln is re-elected President in the 1864 election winning the popular vote by 55%
  • The Confederates Attempt to Burn New York

    The Confederates Attempt to Burn New York
    A secret service of Confederates set fire to 13 buildings throughout Manhattan, including hotels, theaters and apartments. The fires were quickly extinguished and it was assumed that this was the doing of the Confederates. Later on, it was learned that it was a wild attempt to separate New York from the rest of the Union with fire as revenge for the damage that the Union has caused in advancing south.
  • Battle of Nashville

    Battle of Nashville
    Spanning from December 15-16, the Union troops overran the Confederate trenches and drove the rebels back. The next day the Union attacked again, totally wiping out the Confederates. General Hood and his men retreated to Mississippi.
  • The 13th Amendment is Passed

    The 13th Amendment is Passed
    Passed January 31, this amendment abolished slavery. This amendment showed that the south's rebellion would not be tolerated.
  • Battle of Fort Stedman

    Battle of Fort Stedman
    Also known as Battle of Hare's Hill, was fought during the final weeks of the Civil War. The Union's fortification around Petersburg Virginia was attacked early in the morning by the Confederates. The Battle ended in a Union Victory.
  • Jefferson Davis Flees Richmond

    Jefferson Davis Flees Richmond
    With the advance of the Union Army, Davis and other officials in the Confederate Congress flee Richmond. Davis was captured by the North and imprisoned for two years.
  • General Lee Surenders

    General Lee Surenders
    General Lee surrenders to General Grant at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia. This essentially ends the Civil War.
  • The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    At Fords Theater in Washington D.C, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth days after the end of the Civil War.
  • Booth is Captured

    Booth is Captured
    In a barn in Virginia at the Garret's farm, John Wilkes Booth is captured after being on the run for the assassination of Lincoln. He is shot and killed by Boston Corbett.
  • Lincoln's Funeral

    Lincoln's Funeral
    Three weeks after his assassination, Lincoln is finally laid to rest. Before that however, the U.S mourns his loss and there is a Funeral Pagent that spanned 1,700 miles. Lincoln is carried to his final burial place in the presidential car on the train. He was buried with his son in Springfield, Illinois.
  • Lincoln's Assassination Conspirators are Hanged

    Lincoln's Assassination Conspirators are Hanged
    Four people were condemned to death after being on trial for conspiring the assassination of Lincoln. Among them is Mary Surratt who became the first woman to be executed in the U.S by federal authorities and the only woman until 1953.
  • Henry Wirz

    Henry Wirz
    A Swiss immigrant and Commander of Andersonville, Wirz is hanged for the murder of soldiers held in the prison camp during the Civil War. A few of these charges were for personally murdering a soldier but most are for giving orders to others in the camp. His trial lasted over 2 months and around 160 witnesses testified. While he did show indifference to prisoners, some evidence against him was fabricated and he was found guilty.
  • The 13th Amendment is Ratified

    The 13th Amendment is Ratified
    After being passed and waited to be ratified, the 13th Amendment in ratified, abolishing slavery.
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    The last issue of the Liberator is published since it is no longer needed now that slavery is abolished.
  • Fisk University is Founded

    Fisk University is Founded
    Founded in Nashville Tennessee, Fisk University was one of the first institutes of higher education to open it's doors to former slaves merely nine months after the end of the Civil War.
  • Civil Rights Bill of 1866

    Civil Rights Bill of 1866
    The bill was first introduced by Senate Judiciary Chairman Lyman Trumbull of Illinois and the bill mandated that "all persons born in the United States," with the exception of American Indians, were "hereby declared to be citizens of the United States." The Bill granted all "full and equal benefits of the law"
  • Memphis Massacre

    Memphis Massacre
    Tension in the south led to a three day riot known as the Memphis Massacre. This was caused by a white police officer attempting to arrest an black ex-soldier. It is unknown who started the gunfire, but it turned into a violent riot that ended in the destruction of schools, churches and deaths and injuries. It was so bad that General Stoneman declared Martial Law and sent black and white troops to restore order.
  • American Equal Rights Association

    American Equal Rights Association
    Of the major groups leading the suffrage movement, one was the American Equal Rights Association. It was founded at the eleventh National Women's Rights Convention by suffrage leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. The goal was to have equal rights for all.
  • The 14th Amendment is Passed

    The 14th Amendment is Passed
    Congress passed the 14th Amendment which would be ratified in 1868. This amendment extended the rights on the Bill of Rights to formerly enslaved people.
  • Tennessee is Reamitted

    Tennessee is Reamitted
    Tennessee becomes the first seceded state to be readmitted to the Union following the Civil War. A week before it's readmittence, it ratified the 14th Amendment.
  • Atlantic Cable

    Atlantic Cable
    The first transatlantic cable is established making a permanent link between the two continents. This would forever change the relationships between the two lands politically, personally and commercially.
  • Labor Union Advocates

    Labor Union Advocates
    The National Labor Union advocates for an eight hour work day. It as founded in 1866 and was led by William H. Sylvis. The goal was to pave the way for other unions and labor reforms.
  • Howard University is Founded

    Howard University is Founded
    Howard University was founded and open to all people of any sex or race.
  • African American Men can Vote in D.C

    African American Men can Vote in D.C
    Despite President Andrew Johnson's veto, the senate overrode the veto three years before the law was passed that allowed all men regardless of race to vote.
  • First Reconstruction Act of 1867

    First Reconstruction Act of 1867
    The Reconstruction Acts became part of a time period known as the Radical Reconstruction. The acts essentially imposed rules that stated that all states needed to accept the 14th Amendment and it controlled the south in five military districts. It also stated that Confederate officials were temporarily not allowed in any political business.
  • Second Reconstruction Act

    Second Reconstruction Act
    This act stated that military district commanders had to hold state constitutional conventions. President Andrew Johnson veto'd this but the senate overrode him and the act was passed.
  • Alaska is Bought

    Alaska is Bought
    The U.S purchases Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. The treaty was negotiated and signed by U.S secretary of state and the Russian Minister. This would be the 49th state to be added.
  • Fourth Reconstruction Act

    Fourth Reconstruction Act
    This act proposed state constitutions could be ratified by taking majority vote of each state.
  • William Nichols and Ride In Cars

    William Nichols and Ride In Cars
    In New Orleans, streetcars were segregated with majority of cars being for white people and a scarce few for African Americans. In protest, African Americans would try to ride the white cars or refuse to ride in the streetcars. William Nichols was riding in a white car and refused to get off the car when demanded to. When he was forced to leave the car, he went limb and the police were called and he was arrested.
  • Third Reconstruction Act

    Third Reconstruction Act
    This act gives military commanders the authority to remove state officials from office.
  • Alaska Becomes the 49th State

    Alaska Becomes the 49th State
    Alaska is officially added to the United States after President Andrew Johnson signed the treaty May 28th.
  • Impeachment

    Johnson is considered to be too lenient on the south and congress discusses his impeachment. Congress voted against his impeachment twice but once he dismisses his Secretary of War in 1868, he is impeached.
  • The Suspension of the Secretary of State

    The Suspension of the Secretary of State
    Andrew Johnson suspends Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War after they argue about reconstruction plans. He is replaced with Ulysses S. Grant.