Missouri Comprimise 1820-1821Northerners and southerners disagreed whether Missouri should be admitted as a free state or slave state. Henry clay was behind the leadership but president James Monroe signed the compromise. The Missouri comprimise undr the agreements, Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The diving land was set at 36 degrees and 30 degrees north latitude. south of the line slavery was legal. North of the line excep Missouri was banned.
Santa Fe TrailEach spring from 1821 to 1860s, American traders loaded their covered wagons with goods and set off toward Santa fr. For the first 150 miles, traders feared attacks by the native Americans. They bonded into organized groups of up to 100. After a few days of trading, they headed back to Missouri.
San Felipe de AustinMoises Austin, Austin’s father received a land grand from Spain to establish a colony between Brazos and Colorado rivers. But died before carrying out his plan. San Felipe de Austin was named after Stephan’s honor. By 1825, Austin had issued 297 land grants to the group that later became know as Texas old three hundred. each family received either 177 very inexpensive acres of farmland or 4,428 acres for stock grazing, as well as a 10-year exemption from paying taxes.
The LiberatorThe most radical white abolitionist was a young
editor named William Lloyd Garrison. Active in religious reform movements in Massachusetts, Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828. Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising demand: immediate emancipation. Garrison wrote the paper about the immediate emancipation of slaves
Mexico abolished slaveryMexico, which had abolished slavery in 1829, insisted in vain that Texans free their slaves. slavery was against Mexican law, but Americans brought slaves to Texas.
AbolitionForten’s unwavering belief that he was an American not only led him to oppose colonization the effort to resettle free blacks in Africa but also pushed him fervently to oppose slavery. Forten was joined in his opposition to slavery by a growing number of Americans in the 19th century. Abolition, the movement to abolish slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
Nat Turner's RebellionSome slaves rebelled against their condition of
bondage. One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed many members of the group, including Turner.
Stephen F. Austin goes to jailWhile Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned got inciting revolution.
Oregon TrailThe Oregon trail stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon city, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by two methadist missionaries named Marcus and narcisa Whitman.
Texas RevolutionThe 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
Texas enters United StatesMost Texans hoped that the United States would annexe their republic but the u.s opinion divided along section lines. The south wanted Texas in order to expand slavery. The north feared the increase in slaves would top uneasy balance.
Manifest destinyIn the 1840s, expansion fever gripped the country. the phrase “manifest destiny” expresses the belief that the United States was ordinated to expand to the Pacific Ocean and unto Mexican and native territory. many Americans also believed that this destiny was manifest, or obvious inevitable.
Reasons for going west:
1. abundance land was the greatest attraction
2. Merchants seemed new markets
3. Economic problems
The North StarIn In 1847, Douglass began his own antislavery newspaper. He named it The North Star, after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom.
Mexican American WarThe Mexican war was was from April 25, 1846 to February 2, 1848. When the United stares annexed Texas and Mexico challenged the border. Battles were fought in Texas and Mexico was invaded from the Atlantic Ocean by general minisfield Scott. Scott attacked Mexico’s city and Chapultepec. This war ended the treaty of Hidalgo in 1848.
Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoOn February 2, 1848 the United States and Mexico signed the treaty of Guadelupe Hildago Mexico agreed to the Rio grande on the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded did the New Mexico and California teritory. the US paid 15 million for the Mexican cession. Included present day California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Utah.
Compromise of 1850concerns was the border dispute in which the slave state of Texas claimed the eastern half of the New Mexico Territory, where the issue of slavery had not yet been settled. threats of Southern secession, the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union, became more frequent. Clay’s compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as Southerners. To please the North, the compromise provided that California be a free state. The south will be under slave fugitive law.
Fugitive Slave ActUnder the law,
alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for up to six months. Infuriated by the Fugitive Slave Act, some Northerners resisted it by organizing “vigilance committees” to send endangered African Americans to
safety in Canada. Others resorted to violence to rescue fugitive slaves. Still others worked to help slaves escape from slavery
Uncle Tom's CabinIn 1852, Harriet
Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. As a young girl, Stowe had watched boats filled with people on their way to be sold at slave markets. Uncle Tom’s Cabin expressed her lifetime hatred of slavery
Kansas-Nebraska ActI’m janurary of 1854 Stephen Douglass wrote the Kansas-Nebraska act thst would divide the area into territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south. If passed, the bill would repeal the Missouri compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories.The north did not favor but the south strongly defended the proposed legislation.
Dread Scott v. SandfordDred Scott was a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory In Illinois and Wisconsin back to Missouri. he sued for his freedom because he was brought to a free state Illinois and Wisconsin made him a free man. but th e Supreme Court ruled against him because he lacked any legal standing because he was not a citizen. The fifth amendment protected property which included slaves.
John Brown’s raid/Harpers FerryJohn Brown was a abolitionist thst studied slave uprising that occurred in ancient Rome and more recently, on the French island of Haiti. Brown secertly obtained financial backing from several northern abolitionist. On October 16, 1859 he led a band of 21 men, Black and White, into Harpers ferry, Virginia. his aim wacfo seize the federal arsrmal there and start a slave uprising. But he was put to death by the authorities. Other accused whites were attacked for anti slavery beliefs.
Underground RailroadThe most famous conductor of the underground railroad was Harriet Tubman. The purpose of the underground railroad was to help slaves escape from slavery. s. It meant avoiding
patrols of armed men on horseback and struggling through forests and across rivers. Often it meant going without food for days at a time. Once fugitives reached the North, many chose to remain there. Harriet Tubman made 19 trips and helped 300 slaves.
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas debateIn 1860 Abraham Lincoln won the debate and was against slavery unlike Stephen Douglas.
Abraham Lincoln becomes presidentAs the 1860 presidential election approached,
the Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln appeared to be moderate
in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also
tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere
with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.” Nonetheless, many
Southerners viewed him as an enemy
Attack on Fort SumterMonths earlier, as soon as the Confederacy was formed, Confederate soldiers in each secessionist state began seizing federal installations—especially forts. By the time of Lincoln’s inauguration on March 4, 1861, only four Southern forts remained in Union hands. The most important was Fort Sumter, on an island in Charleston harbor.
Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it.
Formation of the confederacyMississippi soon followed South Carolina’s lead, as did
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In
February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in
Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate
States of America, or Confederacy. Former senator Jefferson Davis was of Mississppi.
Battle of AntietamMcClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
Antietam (Bn-tCPtEm). The clash proved to be the bloodiest
single-day battle in American history, with casualties
totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing
the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly
ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
Lincoln removed him from command.
ConscriptionAs the fighting intensified, heavy casualties and widespread desertions led each side to impose conscription, a draft that forced men to serve in the army. In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place in New York City. Sweeping changes occurred in the wartime economies of both
sides as well as in the roles played by African Americans and women
Battle of GettysburgBuford ordered his men to take defensive positions on the hills and ridges surrounding the town. When Hill’s troops marched toward the town from the west, Buford’s men were waiting. The shooting attracted more troops and both sides called for reinforcements. By the end of the first day of fighting, 90,000
Union troops under the command of General George Meade had
taken the field against 75,000 Confederates, led by General Lee.
23,000 union men and 28,000 confederates were killed.
Emancipation proclamationEmancipation was not just a moral issue; it became a weapon of war. 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. The following portion captured national attention. The proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Nevertheless, for many, the proclamation gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight
to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible.
Gettyberg AddressIn November 1863, a ceremony was held to dedicate
a cemetery in Gettysburg. There, President Lincoln spoke for a little morethan two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said, “The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
of individual states; it was one unified nation.
Sherman's MarchIn the
spring of 1864, Sherman began
his march southeast through
Georgia to the sea, creating a
wide path of destruction. His
army burned almost every house
in its path and destroyed livestock
and railroads. Sherman was
determined to make Southerners By mid-November he had burned most of Atlanta. After reaching the ocean,
Sherman’s forces—followed by 25,000 former slaves—turned north to help Grant
“wipe out Lee.”
Surrender at appomattox court houseApril 3, 1865, Union troops conquered Richmond, the Confederate capital On April 9, 1865, in a Virginia town called Appomattox Court House, Lee and Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Within a month all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over.
Thirteenth AmendmentAfter some political maneuvering, the
Thirteenth Amendment was ratified at
the end of 1865. The U.S. Constitution now
stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for crime
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
shall exist within the United States.”
Assassination of Abraham LincolnOn April 14, 1865 Lincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theater
in Washington to see a British comedy, Our American Cousin. During its third act, a man crept up behind Lincoln and shot the president in the back of his head. in the back of his head.
Lincoln, who never regained consciousness, died on April 15. It was the first time a president of the United States had been assassinated. , John Wilkes Booth, 26, escaped but 12 days later he was shot.
Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman,
born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849, after Tubman’s
owner died, she heard rumors that she was about to be sold. Fearing this possibility, Tubman decided to make a break for freedom and succeeded in reaching Philadelphia. Shortly after passage of the Fugitive Slave Act, Tubman resolved to become a conductor on the Underground Railroad. In all, she made 19 trips back to the South and is said to have helped 300 slaves—including her own parents—flee to freedom
Income TaxAs the Northern economy grew, Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first income tax, a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.