Img 6359

The Civil War

  • 1) Missouri Compromise 1820-1821

    1) Missouri Compromise 1820-1821
    Maine was admitted as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state. Louisiana Territory was split into two parts, at 36*30' north latitude. In the north, slavery was illegal, while the south had slavery legalized. James Monroe was president.
  • 3) Santa Fe Trail

    3) Santa Fe Trail
    Busiest route stretching 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe in New Mexico from 1821 to 1860's.
  • 5) San Felipe de Austin

    5) San Felipe de Austin
    A colony made by Stephen F. Austin, made possible by a land grant by Spain and Mexico.
  • 6) Mexico Abolishes Slavery

    6) Mexico Abolishes Slavery
    Problem in Texas because many of the settlers there spoke English, and were southerners who brought slaves with them.
  • 13) The Liberator

    13) The Liberator
    William Lloyd Garrison. Active in religious reform movements
    in Massachusetts, Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828.
    Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising
    demand: immediate emancipation.
  • 15) Nat Turner's Rebellion

    15) Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Some slaves rebelled against their condition of
    bondage. One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave
    Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
    plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed
    many members of the group, including Turner.
  • 7) Stephen F. Austin goes to jail

    7) Stephen F. Austin goes to jail
    He was imprisoned for inciting revolution.
  • 4) Oregon Trail

    4) Oregon Trail
    Stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. Created in 1836 by two Methodists missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. It proved that wagons could travel on Oregon Trail.
  • 8) Texas Revolution

    8) Texas Revolution
    rebellion in which Texas gained independence from Mexico
  • 2) Manifest Destiny

    2) Manifest Destiny
    Americans desired to expand as though it was predestined by god. Term was used to express the belief that the US was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean.
  • 9) Texas enters the US

    9) Texas enters the US
    James K Polk won the Presidential Campaign of the time, and firmly favored the annexation of Texas.
  • 10) Mexican American War

    10) Mexican American War
    Annexation procedures were quickly initiated after the 1844 election of Polk, who campaigned that Texas should be “re-annexed” and that the Oregon Territory should be “re-occupied.” When his offer to purchase those lands was rejected, he instigated a fight by moving troops into a disputed zone between the Rio Grande and Nueces River that both countries had previously recognized as part of the Mexican state of Coahuila.
  • 14) The North Star

    14) The North Star
    In 1847, Frederick Douglass began his own
    antislavery newspaper. He named it
    The North Star, after the star that
    guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • 11) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    11) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    After about a year of fighting, Mexico conceded defeat. On February 2,
    1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
    Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and
    ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included present day
    California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of
    Colorado and Wyoming.
  • 12) Abolition

    12) Abolition
    Abolition, the movement to abolish
    slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • 17) Fugitive Slave Act

    17) Fugitive Slave Act
    Under the law,
    alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted
    of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
    up to six months. Infuriated by the Fugitive Slave Act, some Northerners resisted
    it by organizing “vigilance committees” to send endangered African Americans to
    safety in Canada. Others resorted to violence to rescue fugitive slaves. Still others
    worked to help slaves escape from slavery.
  • 16) Compromise of 1850

    16) Compromise of 1850
    Henry Clay’s compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as Southerners. To please the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed a new and more effective fugitive slave law. To placate both sides, a provision allowed popular sovereignty, the right to vote for or against slavery, for residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories.
  • 18) Underground Railroad

    18) Underground Railroad
    Free African Americans and white abolitionists developed a
    secret network of people who would hide fugitive
    slaves. The system of escape routes they used became known as the Underground Railroad. “Conductors” on the routes hid fugitives in secret tunnels and false cupboards, provided them with food and clothing, and escorted or directed them to the next “station.” Once fugitives
    reached the North, many chose to remain there. Others went to
    Canada to be completely out of reach of their “owners.”
  • 19) Harriet Tubman

    19) Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman,
    born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849, after Tubman’s
    owner died, she heard rumors that she was about to be sold. Fearing
    this possibility, Tubman decided to make a break for freedom and succeeded
    in reaching Philadelphia. Shortly after passage of the Fugitive Slave
    Act, Tubman resolved to become a conductor on the Underground
    Railroad. In all, she made 19 trips back to the South and is said to have
    helped 300 slaves—including her own parents—flee to freedom
  • 20) Uncle Tom's Cabin

    20) Uncle Tom's Cabin
    In 1852, Harriet
    Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed
    that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
    As a young girl, Stowe had watched boats filled with people on
    their way to be sold at slave markets. Uncle Tom’s Cabin expressed her
    lifetime hatred of slavery
  • 21) Kansas-Nebraska Act

    21) Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a
    bill in Congress on January 23, 1854,
    that would divide the area into two
    territories: Nebraska in the north and
    Kansas in the south. If passed, the bill
    would repeal the Missouri Compromise
    and establish popular sovereignty for
    both territories
  • 22) Dred Scott V Stanford

    22) Dred Scott V Stanford
    A major Supreme Court decision was
    brought about by Dred Scott, a slave whose owner took him from
    the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin
    and back to Missouri. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his
    freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and
    a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man.
    The case was in court for years. Finally, on March 6, 1857,
    the Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott.
  • 24) John Brown's Raid/Harper's Ferry

    24) John Brown's Raid/Harper's Ferry
    Brown secretly obtained financial backing from several
    prominent Northern abolitionists. On the night of October 16, 1859,
    he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there
    and start a general slave uprising. No such uprising occurred, however. Instead, troops put down the rebellion.
    Later, authorities tried Brown and put him to death.
  • 23) Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    23) Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    Neither wanted slavery in the territories,
    but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed deeply in
    popular sovereignty. Lincoln, on the other hand, believed that slavery
    was immoral. However, he did not expect individuals to give up
    Douglas won the Senate seat,
    widened split in the Democratic Party. As for Lincoln, his
    attacks on the “vast moral evil” of slavery drew national
    attention, and some Republicans began thinking of him as an
    excellent candidate for the presidency
  • 25) Abraham Lincoln becomes President

    25) Abraham Lincoln becomes President
    Was successful because the democratic party split into three parts.
  • 26) Formation of the Confederacy

    26) Formation of the Confederacy
    Mississippi soon followed South Carolina, as did
    Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In
    February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in
    Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate
    States of America, or Confederacy. They also drew up a
    constitution that closely resembled that of the United
    States, but with a few notable differences. The most important
    difference was that it “protected and recognized” slavery
    in new territories. Jefferson Davis president.
  • 27) Attack on Fort Sumter

    27) Attack on Fort Sumter
    Confederate soldiers
    in each secessionist state began seizing federal installations—especially forts. The most important was Fort Sumter, on an island
    in Charleston harbor.
    Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it. He would
    merely send in “food for hungry men.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate batteries
    began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens. The deadly
    struggle between North and South was under way.
  • 28) Battle of Bull Run

    28) Battle of Bull Run
    three months
    after Fort Sumter fell, just 25 miles from
    Washington, D.C. In the morning the Union army
    gained the upper hand, but the Confederates held firm, inspired by Stonewall Jackson. In the afternoon Confederate
    reinforcements helped win the first Southern victory.
    the Confederates were too exhausted to follow up their victory with an attack on
    Washington. Still, Confederate morale soared. Many Confederate soldiers, confi-
    dent that the war was over, left the army and went home.
  • 29) Battle at Antiedam

    29) Battle at Antiedam
    McClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
    sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
    Antietam (Bn-tCPtEm). The clash proved to be the bloodiest
    single-day battle in American history, with casualties
    totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing
    the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly
    ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
    Lincoln removed him from command.
  • 30) Emancipation Proclamation

    30) Emancipation Proclamation
    On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. The
    following portion captured national attention.
    The proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only
    to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Nevertheless, for many,
    the proclamation gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight
    to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible.
  • 31) Conscription

    31) Conscription
    The war led to social upheaval and political unrest in both the North and the
    South. As the fighting intensified, heavy casualties and widespread desertions led
    each side to impose conscription, a draft that forced men to serve in the army.
    In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place
    in New York City. Sweeping changes occurred in the wartime economies of both
    sides as well as in the roles played by African Americans and women.
  • 32) Income Tax

    32) Income Tax
    As the Northern economy grew,
    Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first income
    tax, a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
  • 33) Battle at Gettysburg

    33) Battle at Gettysburg
    Near Gettysburg, in
    southern Pennsylvania, the most decisive battle was fought. The Battle
    of Gettysburg began on July 1 when Confederate soldiers led by A. P. Hill encountered
    John Buford, an
    experienced officer from Illinois. After the
    battle, Lee gave up invading the North and led his army back to
    The three-day battle losses: 23,000 Union men and 28,000
    Confederates were killed or wounded. Northerners were enthusiastic about breaking “the
    charm of Robert Lee’s invincibility.”
  • 34) Gettysburg address

    34) Gettysburg address
    In November 1863, a ceremony was held to dedicate
    a cemetery in Gettysburg. There, President Lincoln spoke for a little more
    than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s
    Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said,
    “The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In
    other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
    of individual states; it was one unified nation.
  • 35) Battle at Vicksburg

    35) Battle at Vicksburg
    Union general Ulysses S. Grant
    fought to take Vicksburg
    Grant and his troops rushed to
    Vicksburg, hoping to take the city while the rebels were reeling from their losses.
    in the last week of May 1863, Grant settled in for a siege. shelling the city from both the river and the land for several
    hours a day,
    asked Grant for terms of surrender
    The city fell on July 4. Five days later Port Hudson, Louisiana, the last
    Confederate holdout on the Mississippi, also fell. the Confederacy was cut in two.
  • 36) Sherman's March

    36) Sherman's March
    In the
    spring of 1864, Sherman began
    his march southeast through
    Georgia to the sea, creating a
    wide path of destruction. His
    army burned almost every house
    in its path and destroyed livestock
    and railroads.
  • 37) Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    37) Surrender at Appomattox Court House
    On April 3, 1865, Union troops conquered
    Richmond, the Confederate capital. On April 9, 1865,
    in a Virginia town called Appomattox Court House, Lee and
    Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s
    request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them
    home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. After four long years, the Civil War was over
  • 38) 13th Amendment

    38) 13th Amendment
    After some political maneuvering, the
    Thirteenth Amendment was ratified at
    the end of 1865. The U.S. Constitution now
    stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude, except as a punishment for crime
    whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
    shall exist within the United States.”
  • 39) assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    39) assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln, who never regained consciousness,
    died on April 15. It was the first time a
    president of the United States had been assassinated. After the shooting, the
    assassin, John Wilkes Booth—a 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer—
    then leaped down from the presidential box to the stage and escaped. Twelve days
    later, Union cavalry trapped him in a Virginia tobacco shed and shot him dead.