As America grew as an economy, so did the ways of improving said economy. New machines were built and factories were made to accommodate workers coming in to create products from the newly created machines such as the cotton gin that could create clothes easily. Daniel Webster was a spokesperson for this time period, for he supported modernization and the increased government support for Northern Industrialization
As the west expanded, the Oregon Trail was founded. This means that more and more people began to flock there, which also brought in the issues of going into owned territory. The Gadsden purchase stopped these issues, and allowed for people to go into the forbidden areas like New Mexico and Arizona. The mormons, a religious group, flock to New Mexico, and a large Gold vein is found in California and thousands of people flock to the area, including Chinese immigrants.
In March, the Missouri Compromise, written by Henry Clay, is signed. It states that the state of Maine will be put into the nation by May of 1820, and Missouri shall be a state by 1821. One will be a free state, (Maine) and the other will be a slave state (Missouri)
Maine Becomes a State
Maine officially becomes the 23rd state as of May, 1820. Maine is free.
CENSUS OF 1820
15% of the American Population was slaves.
Missouri becomes a slave state
August, 1821- Missouri officially enters the US as a slave state.
Monroe Doctrine is Signed
December, 1823- The Monroe doctrine is signed, placing restrictions on European operation within the Americas.
New York Becomes a Free State
1827- New York declares itself as a free state.
The Tariff of Abominations is Signed
1828- Congress signs a set of tariffs (Tariff of Abominations) that increased the taxes on imports. The South was very unhappy with it's creation.
Literary Works Fuel the Abolitionist Fire
David Walker releases his “David Walker's Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World book that fuels the abolitionist fire. Frederick Douglass publishes Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass. American Author Harriet Beecher Stowe releases a major pro-abolition novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” that reveals how life isn’t ever happy for a slave. It causes more people to turn an eye to the slave problem.
1830 CENSUS- Slaves made up 16% of the entire population. Slaves barely made up the northern states, while the southern areas slaves made up more than half of the population of states, like in South Carolina where slaves made up 54% of the statewide population.
The Liberator is published
January, 1831- William Lloyd Garrison puts out the first issue of The Liberator, an abolitionist journal.
The Nat Turner Rebellion Starts
August, 1831- The Nat Turner Rebellion launches, where 55 to 60 whites were killed in an effort to end slavery. It only lasted two months until Nat Turner was found and hanged.
The Powers of the Tariff of Abominations are Reduced
1832- The Tariffs of Abominations powers were reduced in a response to the growing southern anger. However, the efforts to reduce the tariffs didn’t satisfy the south. Instead, it further angered them, enough for South Carolina to organize an army in order to declare the tariffs Null and Void.
Great Britain ends Slavery
1834- Great Britain abolishes slavery during the expansion of the issue of slavery throughout the world.
Resolution Regarding Slavery Made
May, 1836- The House passed a resolution that stopped, or postponed any petition regarding slavery without a hearing.
Arkansas becomes a slave state
June, 1836- Arkansas becomes part of the US (25th State) as a slave state.
Michigan Becomes a Free State
January, 1837- The area of Michigan becomes the 26th state of the US and is a free state.
The Underground Railroad is created
1838- The Underground Railroad is created by Robert Purvis, and officially begins operations to bring in slaves from the south up to the north.
The Amistad is Taken Over.
A Ship holding slaves near the Cuban coast is taken over by slaves on the ship that have hopes to head for the north. Either way, the slaves are put on trial and John Quincy Adams is on a case trying to get them released.
CENSUS- Slaves made up 15% of the national population and made up more than half of the statewide population in Mississippi; 52%
Florida Becomes a Slave State
March, 1845- Florida becomes the 27th state of the US, and is a slave state.
Texas Becomes a Slave State
December, 1845- Texas enters the US as the 28th state; Texas is a slave state.
Iowa Becomes a Free State
December, 1846- Iowa becomes the 28th state and is free.
The Mexican-American War was a war that was mainly caused by the Mexicans who refused to move out of the way of Americans on their manifest destiny, eventually leading up to border disputes, which later ended up being an entire war, which the US came out as victorious as well as having a new, large sum of land to use for building new civilizations on the west coast. Later, the areas were given the choice of having slavery or not, and the Wilmot Proviso had tried to prevent slavery in the areas.
Wisconsin Becomes a Free State
May, 1848- Wisconsin becomes the 29th, and also is free.
Harriet Tubman Rises
1849- Abolitonist figure Harriet Tubman escapes slavery and begins her part in the underground railroad by helping slave families go from the south to the north.
The Compromise of 1850 is signed.
The recently conquered areas won from the Spanish-American war was under debate if it should be a Slave State or a Free State. Congress decided to organize these areas. This compromise of changes included the removal of slavery from the Columbia area, California becoming a free state, New Mexico and Utah becoming states, and the law requiring anyone holding an escaped slave to return them to their owner.
CENSUS- The 1850 census shows that slaves were 14% of the American population. Slaves in the Northeast are too few to even count, but many southern states have more than 50% of their population as slaves.
The period where military conflicts in Kansas were fought over the state to be either a free state, or a slave state.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act is Signed.
1854- The Kansas-Nebraska act (Created by Stephen Douglas) is officially signed, which makes the Northern territories open to the problem of slavery, and the hardship of choosing whether or not to be free, or a slave state. Both the North and the South begin to send in settlers in an effort to influence the areas of southern culture, or northern culture. Popular Sovereignty was also a prominent belief that the people going into the new area should decide for themselves to be a slave state.
Kansas Slavery Election is Halted by Border Ruffians
1855- In Kansas, an election to decide whether or not to be a slave state is being altered by “Border Ruffians” who seek to influence the election to become a free state. But, since the Border Ruffians are violently altering the election, the “Bloody Kansas” era goes into play. John Brown most notably fought against those who were for slavery via “Armed Insurrection”; the only way he saw fit to overthrow slavery.
Congress Passes the Tariff of 1857
1857- Congress passes another Tariff, this one being a tax reduction. It lowered rates by 20% and obviously caused the tax-reliant north to roar in outcry, but the South praised it for it allowing them to actually thrive in the agriculture market without being heavily taxed
Slave owners are allowed to bring Slaves into Northern areas.
March, 1857- The Scott vs. Sanford case ends in a decision where slave owners were able to take their slaves through free states. This decision was made by the Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney, who was for slavery.
Oregon becomes a free state
1859- Oregon becomes the thirty-third state and is free
John Brown launches his attack on Harper's Ferry
October, 1859- John Brown Raids Harper's Ferry in order to gain weapons to arm his own slave revolt, but is hanged shortly after.
South Carolina secedes due to Lincoln's policies. Calhoun told SC would secede if the policies were not changed. After the unarmed ship The Star of the West is fired upon by Union troops, Mississippi secedes in response. Alabama joins the seceding states. Since the attempts to ease tension with the North and South, southern states, like Georgia, began to leave the Union. Florida secedes after all the major states go. Texas, one of the larger southern areas, officially secedes from the union.
Abraham Lincoln is Elected President
Republican Abraham Lincoln becomes the 16th president of the US and is fairly unpopular with the south.
The Union Sends in Troops to Fort Sumter in South Carolina
1860- The Union's response to South Carolina's almost immediate secession was to place Union troops into the Union-held Fort Sumter.
CENSUS- As American population grew, the percentage of african slaves decreased from 14% to 13% within a decade.
The Crittenden Compromise is ignored
The Crittenden compromise, created by John J. Crittenden, was a set of proposed amendment and congressional actions that would partly include the permanence of slavery within slave states. The Compromise was brought to the Senate, and the remaining southern leaders support it. However, the Northern members of the Senate did not support it, leading it to be ignored. The Compromise was overall meant to ease tensions between the North ad the South.
Kansas becomes a free state.
Kansas, after long conflicts, officially enters the Union as a free state.
The Confederacy is formed
After going through creating an actual government for the seceded states, the rebel states create a constitution for their new government. The Confederacy officially forms an army to be used for their battle of freedom that was sure to come. Jefferson Davis is chosen as the leader of the Confederate government. The Confederate army begins an attack on the Union-Held Fort Sumter. This officially marks the beginning of the Civil War between the United States and the Confederate states of America.
Lincoln is inaugurated
At Washington D.C., Abraham Lincoln is officially elected as the president of the United States.
The War Begins
After Confederate troops fire upon the Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina, the Union officially declares war against the Confederate States of America.