Civil war

Civil War

  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Definition: Under the series of agreements, Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´ north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in
    Missouri—slavery was banned.
    President During this Time: Henry Clay
  • Abolition

    The movement to abolish slavery became the most important of a series of reform movements in America
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    Settlers and traders used this old Native American trail, which was one of the busiest route. It stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico. The American traders would load their wagons and travel this route between 1821 and 1860s.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    What it was: The main settlement of the colony in Texas, was named San Felipe de Austin, in Stephen’s honor (the prominent leader of the American settlers).
    When Established: 1821
    Who Established: Stephen F. Austin
    How was it made Possible: Austin’s father, Moses Austin, had received a land grant from Spain to estab- lish a colony between the Brazos and Colorado rivers but died before he was able to carry out his plans.
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    Active in religious reform movements in Massachusetts, William Lloyd Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828. Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising demand: immediate emancipation.
  • Mexico abolishes slavery

    Mexico abolishes slavery
    Why it was a problem in Texas: Issues intensified between Anglos (American Settlers) and the Mexican government. Such as slavery, the settlers wanted slavery and rebellions broke out against the Mexico government.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner led a rebellion consisting of 50 slaves. They attacked 4 plantations and killed 60 whites.
  • Stephen F. Austin goes to jail

    Stephen F. Austin goes to jail
    Why: Austin had traveled to Mexico City late to present petitions to Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna for greater self-government for Texas. While Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolution.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    Definition: it stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon.
    First Travellers: Two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman found this trail in 1836.
    Proved: That wagons can travel on this trail.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Many Americans began to believe that their movement westward was predestined by God. They wanted to expand to the Pacific Ocean and to the Mexican and Native American territory.
  • Texas enters the United States

    Texas enters the United States
    The 1844 U.S. presidential campaign focused on westward expansion. The winner, James K. Polk, a slaveholder, firmly favored the annexation of Texas.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    From 1846 to 1848, U.S. and Mexican troops fought against one another in the Mexican-American War. Ultimately, it was a battle for land where Mexico was fighting to keep what they thought was their property and the U.S. desired to retain the disputed land of Texas and obtain more of Mexico's northern lands.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    Author: Frederick Douglass, escaped from slavery and fought against it.
    What it was about: Abolishment of slavery
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Ended the Mexican-American war; Mexico also gave up all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as America's southern boundary.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    Harriet Tubman was the most popular conductor. These were a series of tunnels for free-African Americans and white abolitionists to hide and travel without getting caught. They'd go North or to Canada.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    She born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821, and when her slave owner died in 1849, she heard she may be sold. She successfully escaped to Philadelphia, and decided to be a conductor for the Underground Railroads.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise (by Henry Clay) said that California would be admitted as a free state, it re-enforced the fugitive slave law, and in the Utah and New Mexico territories, popular sovereignty would be placed (to let the people decide whether or not they want slavery).
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Under the law, alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
    up to six months.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe
    About: It expressed the authors lifetime hatred of slavery
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Because Kansa and Nebraska were in the north of the Missouri Compromise, they weren't legally allowed slavery. So the Senator, Stephen Douglas, introduced this bill (the Kansas-Nebraska Act) and said to split Nebraska in the north, and Kansas in the south. This would repeal the missouri compromise. The south very much wanted it, but the north didn't. It passed.
  • Dread Scott v. Sandford

    Dread Scott v. Sandford
    Who was Dread Scott:He was a slave and his owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin, then back to Missouri.
    Why did he sue?: He sued because he said that by taking him to free territory, it makes him a free man.
    Final Verdict of court?: Dred did not get any money or freedom. According to the rules of the court, a person who is a non-citizen cannot sue the court. Also, the fifth amendment says that slave is property and that can't be taken.
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    The two were debating each other for the 1858 race for the U.S. Senate. Lincoln and Douglas both disagreed with slavery in the territories, however Douglas agreed to end it by popular sovereignty, while Lincoln said it's immoral and must be abolished by an amendment passed by Congress. Douglas won the senate seat.
  • John Browns Raid? Harpers Ferry

    John Browns Raid? Harpers Ferry
    John Brown (abolitionist) was studying the Roman and French slave uprising s and decided one needed to take place. He had financial aid from white abolitionists and brought 21 men with him to seize the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry (Virginia) and start a general slave uprising. The uprising never happened, they were caught and Brown was killed. The North was furious that he was killed and the South was mad at white abolitionists.
  • Abraham Lincoln becomes President

    Abraham Lincoln becomes President
    The Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln, and while he did say that his party would not interfere with slavery in the south (he just wouldn't expand it), Southerners viewed him as an enemy. Lincoln was the winner with less than half the popular vote and with no electoral votes from the South. He wasn't even on the ballot in the South.
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    The states that left the Union to join the Confederates were (1st) South Carolina, then Mississippi soon left and so did Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Their constitution was very similar to the original, except for the part that said slavery was protected. The former senator, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, was elected President.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    Once the Confederacy was formed, they began to seize federal installations, and soon they only had control of four Southern installations. Fort Sumter is the most important one in Charleston harbor. Lincoln did not abandon or choose to put more troops there. He allowed anyone to fight the Southerners, however. The North was united after this, and this was the beginning of the Civil War.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    The first battle of the Civil War occured three months after Fort Sumter fell, it was by the creek of Bull Run. The battle was beginning to lean to the Union, but then the Confederates gained inspiration from Thomas J. Jackson and brought reinforcements in the afternoon. This was the firs Southern victory, and lucky for the Union, the Confederates were too tired to attack Washington.
  • Conscription

    Tis was a draft that forced men into the Army. Many deaths and people discharging led to this. Many riots occurred in the North.
  • Income Tax

    This is a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income. It occured on the North side in order to pay for the war, because the economy was growing.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    This was the most decisive battle, where A. P. Hill came across several brigades of Union cavalry under the command of John Buford, and Buford had his men wait and surround the hill. The shooting brought more more troops on both sides, and the Confederates took over Gettysburg. On the second day, the Union still held ground south of Gettysburg and even though the Confederates were demolishing them, the Union still stayed. On the third day, the Union won after exchanged continuous fires.
  • Battle at Antietam

    Battle at Antietam
    Robert E. Lee (commander of the Confederates), had split up his troops from Stonewall Jackson's troops while crossing Potomac into the Union state of Maryland. Mclellan (commander of the Union's army) found his plans wrapped around cigars.This was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with casualties
    totaling more than 26,000. Mclellan didn't do anything the next day so Lincoln removed him.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    This was issued by Lincoln to the Union army to take the slaves from the Confederates (because the Confederates were using the slaves to grow crops and make them supplies). It affected the war by giving it the moral purpose to free slaves, and it also ensured that the compromise wasn't possible.
  • Gettysburg address

    In November 1863, a ceremony was held to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg. There, President Lincoln spoke for a little more
    than two minutes. This speech helped the country realized that they are not individual states, but unified.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    While Confederates (Meade's Army) lost in Gettysburg, Ulysses E. Grant was planning to take one of the two Confederate strongholds. All his plans failed, except his plan in the spring of 1863, when he weakened the Confederate defense and distracting them. The Union took over Vicksburg and had citizens go in caves while they cute supplies off. Food supplies ran so low that people were reduced to eating dogs and mules, and Confederates command of Vicksburg asked Grant for terms of surrender.
  • Sherman's March

    Who led it: William Tecumseh
    Sherman (who was appointed by Grant to command forces in Mississippi)
    What had happen: Sherman led an army and 25,000 former slaves through southeast Georgia to the sea, and then too Atlanta. He burned all the citizens livestock, homes and crops to provoke them to give up war.
    Results: They headed North to stop Grant
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
    At the end of 1865, the U.S. Constitution now
    stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude, except as a punishment for crime
    whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States.”
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    Surrender at Appomattox Court House
    location: Virginia town called Appomattox
    attendees: Lee and Grant met at a private house to discuss the Confederates surrender
    agreements: Lincoln's terms were generous: Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were permitted to keep their sidearms. Within a month all remaining Confederate
    resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Five days after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Pres. Lincoln went with his wife to watch a comedy theater act at Ford's Theater in Washington. A man sneaked up behind him and shot him in the head. Pres. Lincoln never regained consciousness and died April 15. The assassin was John Wilkes Booth, he was a Southern sympathizer and 26 year old actor. This was the first President assassination in the US.