Civil war

Civil War Timeline

  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    James Monroe was president
    Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in Missouri—slavery was banned.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    it was a colony
    established in 1821 by Stephen F Austin
    Austin’s father, Moses Austin, had received a land grant from Spain to establish a colony between the Brazos and Colorado rivers but died before he was able to carry out his plans. Stephen obtained permission, first from Spain and then from Mexico after it had won its independence, to carry out his father’s project
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    used to deliver an uncompromising demand: immediate emancipation
    was an anti-slavery news paper
  • Mexico abolishes slavery

    Mexico abolishes slavery
    many of the settlers of Texas were Southerners, who had brought slaves with them
    Mexico, which had abolished slavery in 1829, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed many members of the group, including Turner
  • Stephen F Austin goes to jail

    Stephen F Austin goes to jail
    Austin had traveled to Mexico City late in 1833 to present petitions to Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna for greater self-government for Texas. While Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolution
  • Abolition

    the movement to abolish slavery
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) began when colonists (primarily from the United States) in the Mexican province of Texas rebelled against the increasingly centralist Mexican government
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon
    proved wagons could travel on this route
    first travelers were two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico
    The settlers and traders who made the trek west used a series of old Native American trails as well as new routes
  • Texas enters the United States

    Texas enters the United States
    six months after the Congress of the Republic of Texas voted for annexation by the United States, Texas was admitted into the Union as the 28th state
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    caused by manifest destiny, westward expansion, economics, and slavery
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included present day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state
    the compromise proposed a new and more effective fugitive slave law
    a provision allowed popular sovereignty, the right to vote for or against slavery, for residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury
    anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for up to six months
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman
    purpose was to help slaves escape to freedom
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Harriet Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. As a young girl, Stowe had watched boats filled with people on their way to be sold at slave markets. Uncle Tom’s Cabin expressed her lifetime hatred of slavery.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    proposed by Stephen Douglas
    it would divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south. If passed, the bill would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories
  • Dread Scott v Sandford

    Dread Scott v Sandford
    Dred Scott was a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri
    Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and
    a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man
    the Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    debated for a spot in the senate
    Neither wanted slavery in the territories, but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed deeply in
    popular sovereignty
    Douglas won the Senate seat
  • John Brown's raid/Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's raid/Harpers Ferry
    John Brown was studying the slave uprisings that had occurred in ancient Rome and, more recently, on the French island of Haiti. He believed that the time was ripe for similar uprisings in the United States. Brown secretly obtained financial backing from several prominent Northern abolitionists. He led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there and start a general slave uprising
  • Lincoln becomes President

    Lincoln becomes President
    Lincoln appeared to be moderate in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “inter- fere with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.” Nonetheless, many Southerners viewed him as an enemy
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    established in 1861
    member states: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
    Abraham Lincoln was president
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    Confederate soldiers in each secessionist state began seizing federal installations—especially forts
    Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it. He would merely send in “food for hungry men.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate bat- teries began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    In the morning the Union army gained the upper hand, but the Confederates held firm
    In the afternoon Confederate reinforcements helped win the first Southern victory
    Confederate morale soared. Many Confederate soldiers, confi- dent that the war was over, left the army and went home
  • Conscription

    As the fighting intensified, heavy casualties and widespread desertions led each side to impose a draft that forced men to serve in the army
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The clash proved to be the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with casualties totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result, Lincoln removed him from command
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    one of the two remaining Confederate strongholds on
    the Mississippi River
    The Union had achieved another of its major military objectives, and the Confederacy was cut in two
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Nevertheless, for many, the proclamation gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible
  • Income Tax

    Income Tax
    As the Northern economy grew, Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income
  • Battle at Gettysburg

    Battle at Gettysburg
    Confederate soldiers led by A. P. Hill
    Union cavalry under the command of John Buford
    first day of fighting, 90,000 Union troops took the field against 75,000 Confederates
    Confederates had driven the Union troops from Gettysburg and had taken control of the town
    Northern artillery renewed its barrage, infantry fired on the rebels. Confederates staggered back to their lines. After the battle, Lee gave up any hopes of invading the North and led his army back to Virginia.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    a ceremony was held to dedicate
    a cemetery in Gettysburg. There, President Lincoln spoke for a little more than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said, “The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection of individual states; it was one unified nation
  • Sherman's March

    Sherman's March
    Sherman began his march southeast through Georgia to the sea, creating a wide path of destruction. His army burned almost every house in its path and destroyed livestock and railroads. After reaching the ocean, Sherman’s forces—followed by 25,000 former slaves—turned north to help Grant “wipe out Lee.”
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    Surrender at Appomattox Court House
    Richmond, the Confederate capital
    Lee and Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
    “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States.”
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    John Wilkes Booth—a 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer Ford’s Theatre in Washington
    assassinated to revive the confederacy
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849, after Tubman’s
    owner died, she heard rumors that she was about to be sold. Fearing this possibility, Tubman decided to make a break for freedom and succeeded in reaching Philadelphia. Shortly after passage of the Fugitive Slave Act, Tubman resolved to become a conductor on the Underground Railroad. In all, she made 19 trips back to the South and is said to have helped 300 slaves—including her own parents—flee to freedom.