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Civil War

  • Abolition

    Abolition, the movement to abolish slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Congress passed a series of agreements
    in 1820–1821 known as the Missouri Compromise. Under these agreements,
    Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the
    Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´
    north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in
    Missouri—slavery was banned
    President was James Monroe
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    Mississippi soon followed South Carolina’s lead, as did
    Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In
    February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in
    Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate
    States of America, or Confederacy. The Confederates then unanimously elected former
    senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president.
  • Sante Fe Trail

    Sante Fe Trail
    Santa Fe Trail,
    which stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to
    Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico. (See map
    on page 132.) Each spring from 1821 through the 1860s,
    American traders loaded their covered wagons with goods
    and set off toward Santa Fe.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    In 1821 he established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane
    swearer, and no idler” would be allowed.
    The main settlement of the colony was named San Felipe de Austin, in
    Stephen’s honor. . Each family received either 177 very
    inexpensive acres of farmland, or 4,428 acres for stock grazing, as well as a 10-year
    exemption from paying taxes. “I am convinced,” Austin said, “that I could take on
    fifteen hundred families as easily as three hundred if permitted to do so.”
  • Mexico Abolishes Slavery

    Mexico Abolishes Slavery
    Despite peaceful cooperation between Anglos and
    Tejanos, differences over cultural issues intensified between Anglos and the
    Mexican government. The overwhelmingly Protestant Anglo settlers spoke
    English instead of Spanish. Furthermore, many of the settlers were Southerners,
    who had brought slaves with them to Texas. Mexico, which had abolished slavery in 1829, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves.
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    The most radical white abolitionist was a young
    editor named William Lloyd Garrison. Active in religious reform movements
    in Massachusetts, Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828.
    Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising demand: immediate emancipation.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Some slaves rebelled against their condition of
    bondage. One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave
    Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
    plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed
    many members of the group, including Turner
  • Stephen F. Austin goes to jail

    Stephen F. Austin goes to jail
    Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence,
    Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by
    two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa
    Whitman. By driving their wagon as far as Fort Boise (near
    present-day Boise, Idaho), they proved that wagons could
    travel on the Oregon Trail.
  • Texas Revolution

    the 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its
    independence from Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The phrase “manifest destiny”
    expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific
    Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory.
  • Texas Enters the United States

    Texas Enters the United States
    Most Texans hoped that the United States
    would annex their republic, but U.S. opinion divided along sectional lines.
    Southerners wanted Texas in order to extend slavery, Northerners feared that the annexation of more slave territory
    would tip the uneasy balance in the Senate in favor of slave state and prompt war with Mexico.
    The 1844 U.S. presidential campaign focused on westward expansion. The
    winner, James K. Polk, a slaveholder, firmly favored the annexation of Texas.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    From 1846 to 1848, U.S. and Mexican troops fought against one another in the Mexican-American War. Ultimately, it was a battle for land where Mexico was fighting to keep what they thought was their property and the U.S. desired to retain the disputed land of Texas and obtain more of Mexico's northern lands.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    Douglass, Garrison heard
    him speak and was so impressed that
    he sponsored Douglass to speak for
    various anti-slavery organizations.
    Hoping that abolition could be
    achieved without violence, Douglass
    broke with Garrison, who believed
    that abolition justified whatever
    means were necessary to achieve it.
    In 1847, Douglass began his own
    antislavery newspaper. He named it
    The North Star, after the star that
    guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
    Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and
    ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United
    States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included present day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of
    Colorado and Wyoming.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman,
    born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849, after Tubman’s
    owner died, she heard rumors that she was about to be sold. Fearing
    this possibility, Tubman decided to make a break for freedom and succeeded in reaching Philadelphia. Shortly after passage of the Fugitive Slave
    Act, Tubman became a conductor on the Underground
    Railroad. In all, she made 19 trips back to the South and is said to have
    helped 300 slaves flee to freedom.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Under the law,
    alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
    up to six months. Infuriated by the Fugitive Slave Act, some Northerners resisted
    it by organizing “vigilance committees” to send endangered African Americans to
    safety in Canada. Others resorted to violence to rescue fugitive slaves. Still others
    worked to help slaves escape from slavery.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Henry Clay worked to shape a compromise that both the North
    and the South could accept. After obtaining support of the powerful
    Massachusetts senator Daniel Webster, Clay presented to the Senate a series of resolutions later called the Compromise of 1850.To please the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed a new and more effective fugitive slave law.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    free African Americans and white abolitionists developed a
    secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, hide fugitive
    slaves. The system of escape routes known as the
    Underground Railroad. “Conductors” on the routes hid fugitives Once fugitives
    reached the North, many chose to remain there. Others journeyed to
    Canada to be completely out of reach of their “owners.”
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed
    that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. As a young girl, Stowe had watched boats filled with people on
    their way to be sold at slave markets. Uncle Tom’s Cabin expressed her
    lifetime hatred of slavery. The book stirred Northern abolitionists to
    increase protests against the Fugitive Slave Act, while
    Southerners criticized the book as an
    attack on the South.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    Dred Scott, a slave whose owner took him from
    the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin
    and back to Missouri. Scott appealed for his
    freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and
    a free territory—Wisconsin— made him a free man. The court ruled against
    him, and he appealed to the Supreme Court.
    The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans were not and could never be
    citizens. Dred Scott had no right even to file a lawsuit and remained enslaved.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Kansas and Nebraska territory lay
    north of the Missouri Compromise
    line of 36°30’ and therefore was legally
    closed to slavery. Douglas introduced a
    bill in Congress
    divided the area into two: Nebraska in the north and
    Kansas in the south. The bill
    would repeal the Missouri Compromise
    and establish popular sovereignty. Some Northern congressmen saw the bill to turn the territories into slave states.
    Southerners strongly defended the legislation. After months,
    the Kansas-Nebraska Act became law
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    Lincoln challenged the man
    to a series of debates on the issue
    of slavery in the territories. Douglas accepted the challenge,
    and the stage was set for some of the most celebrated debates
    in U.S. history.
    Neither wanted slavery in the territories,
    but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed in
    popular sovereignty. Lincoln believed that slavery
    was immoral. He did not expect individuals to give up
    slavery unless Congress abolished slavery. Douglas won the Senate seat
  • John Brown's Raid / Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's Raid / Harpers Ferry
    John Brown believed that it was time for uprisings in the
    US. He led a band of 21 men into Harpers Ferry, Virginia, to seize the federal arsenal there and start a slave uprising. No uprising occurred. Troops put down the rebellion. Authorities tried Brown and put him to death. In the North, bells tolled, guns fired salutes, and huge crowds gathered to hear fiery speakers denounce the South. in the South, where mobs assaulted whites suspected of holding antislavery views.
  • Abraham Lincoln becomes President

    Abraham Lincoln becomes President
    As the campaign developed, three major candidates besides Lincoln vied for
    office. The Democratic Party finally split over slavery. Northern Democrats rallied
    behind Douglas and his doctrine of popular sovereignty. Southern Democrats,
    who supported the Dred Scott decision, lined up behind Vice-President John C.
    Breckinridge of Kentucky. Lincoln emerged as the winner with less than half the popular
    vote and with no electoral votes from the South.
  • Income Tax

    Income Tax
    As the Northern economy grew,
    Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first income
    tax, a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    The first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months
    after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from
    Washington, D.C. The battle was a seesaw affair. In the morning the Union army
    gained the upper hand, but the Confederates held firm, inspired by General
    Thomas J. Jackson. Confederate and Union war
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    Months earlier, as soon as the Confederacy was formed, Confederate soldiers
    in each secessionist state began seizing federal installations—especially forts. By
    the time of Lincoln’s inauguration, only four Southern forts
    remained in Union hands. The most important was Fort Sumter, an island
    in Charleston harbor.
    Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it. He would
    merely send in “food for hungry men.”
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    McClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
    sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
    Antietam (Bn-tCPtEm). The clash proved to be the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with casualties
    totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
    Lincoln removed him from command.
  • Emancipation of Proclamation

    Emancipation of Proclamation
    Lincoln did find a way to use his constitutional war powers to end slavery. The Confederacy used the labor of slaves to
    build fortifications and grow food. Lincoln’s powers as commander in chief
    allowed him to order his troops to seize enemy resources. He decided
    that he could
    also authorize the army to emancipate slaves. Emancipation was not just a moral
    issue; it became a weapon of war.
    Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s
    Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said,
    “The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In
    other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection of individual states; it was one unified nation.
  • Battle at VIcksburg

    Battle at VIcksburg
    Confederate hopes in Gettysburg,
    fought to take Vicksburg.
    Their confidence growing with every victory, Grant and his troops rushed to
    Vicksburg, hoping to take the city while the rebels were reeling from their losses.
    Grant ordered two frontal attacks on Vicksburg, neither of which succeeded. Grant settled in for a siege.
    After food supplies ran so low
    mules, the Confederate command of Vicksburg asked Grant for terms of surrender. The city fell on July 4.
  • Conscription

    The war led to social upheaval and political unrest in both the North and the
    South. As the fighting intensified, heavy casualties and widespread desertions led
    each side to impose conscription, a draft that forced men to serve in the army.
    In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place
    in New York City. Sweeping changes occurred in the wartime economies of both
    sides as well as in the roles played by African Americans and women.
  • Battle at Gettysburg

    Battle at Gettysburg
    The Battle
    of Gettysburg began when Confederate soldiers encountered several brigades of Union cavalry
    Buford ordered his men to take defensive positions on the hills and ridges
    surrounding the town. Hill’s troops marched toward the town from the
    west, Buford’s men were waiting. The shooting attracted more troops and both
    sides called for reinforcements. By the end of the day, 90000
    Union troops under the command of General George Meade had taken the field
    against 75000 Confederates
  • Sherman's March

    Sherman began his march southeast through Georgia to the sea, creating a wide path of destruction. His army burned almost every house in its path and destroyed live- stock and railroads. Sherman was determined to make Southerners “so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it.” By mid-November he had burned most of Atlanta. After reaching the ocean, Sherman’s forces—followed by 25,000 former slaves—turned north to help Grant “wipe out Lee.
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    In a Virginia town called Appomattox. Court House, Lee and Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over.
  • Assasination of Abraham Lincoln

    five days after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Lincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theatre in Washington to see a British comedy. During its third act, a man crept up behind Lincoln and shot the president in the back of his head.
    Lincoln, who never regained consciousness, died. After the shooting, the assassin, John Wilkes Booth—a 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer— then leaped down from the presidential box to the stage and escaped.
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    The government had to decide what to do about the border states, where slavery still existed. The president believed that the only solution was a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery. After some political maneuvering, the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified at the end of 1865. The U.S. Constitution now stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- victed, shall exist within the United States.”