Civil war timeline

Civil War

  • Abolition

    The movement to abol- ish slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • Missouri Compromise 1820-1821

    Missouri Compromise 1820-1821
    Behind the leadership of Henry Clay, Congress passed a series of agreements in 1820–1821 known as the Missouri Compromise. Under these agreements, Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´ north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in Missouri—slavery was banned. The president was James Monroe.
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    The Santa Fe Trail was one of the busiest routes, which stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    Many Americans rushed at the chance to buy inexpensive land in Texas. The population of Anglo, or English-speaking, settlers from the United States soon surpassed the population of Tejanos, or Mexican settlers, who lived in Texas. Among the more prominent leaders of these American settlers was Stephen F. Austin. Also, San Felipe is a town in Austin, Texas. It was the early political centre of the Austin F colony.
  • Mexico Abolishes Slavery

    Mexico Abolishes Slavery
    Mexico, which had abolished slavery in 1829, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed many members of the group, including Turner.
  • The liberator

    The liberator
    The most radical white abolitionist was a young editor named William Lloyd Garrison. Active in religious reform movements in Massachusetts, Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828. Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncom- promising demand: immediate emancipation.
    William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator was published from 1831 to 1865. Its circulation never grew beyond 3,000.
  • Sephen F. Austin goes to jail

    Sephen F. Austin goes to jail
    Stephen F Austin was arrested and imprisoned by Mexicans in 1833 for treason. He was an American empressario often referred to as the "Father of Texas" for leading the colonization of the region in the nineteenth century.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    The Texas Revolution began when colonists (primarily from the United States) in the Mexican province of Texas rebelled against the increasingly centralist Mexican government.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. By driving their wagon as far as Fort Boise (near present-day Boise, Idaho), they proved that wagons could travel on the Oregon Trail.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    On February 2, 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The phrase “manifest destiny” expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory. Many Americans also believed that this destiny was manifest, or obvious and inevitable.
  • Texas Enters the United States

    Texas Enters the United States
    In March 1845, angered by U.S.-Texas negotiation on annexation, the Mexican government recalled its ambassador from Washington. On December 29, 1845, Texas entered the Union.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States from 1846 to 1848.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    In 1847, Douglass began his own antislavery newspaper. He named it The North Star, after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    As the 31st Congress opened in December 1849, the question of statehood for California topped the agenda. Of equal concern was the border dispute in which the slave state of Texas claimed the eastern half of the New Mexico Territory, where the issue of slavery had not yet been settled. As pas- sions mounted, threats of Southern secession, the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union, became more frequent.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    Underground Railroad. “Conductors” on the routes hid fugitives in secret tunnels and false cupboards, provided them with food and clothing, and escorted or directed them to the next “station.” Once fugitives reached the North, many chose to remain there. Others journeyed to Canada to be completely out of reach of their “owners.”
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman, born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849, after Tubman’s owner died, she heard rumors that she was about to be sold. Fearing this possibility, Tubman decided to make a break for freedom and suc- ceeded in reaching Philadelphia.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The harsh terms of the Fugitive Slave Act surprised many people. Under the law, alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone con- victed of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for up to six months.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral strug- gle. As a young girl, Stowe had watched boats filled with people on their way to be sold at slave markets. Uncle Tom’s Cabin expressed her lifetime hatred of slavery.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    he Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce.
  • Dread Scott v. Sandford

    Dread Scott v. Sandford
    Dred Scott, a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and
    a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man.
  • John Brown's Raid/harpers Ferry

    John Brown's Raid/harpers Ferry
    While politicians debated the slavery issue, the abolitionist John Brown was studying the slave uprisings that had occurred in ancient Rome and, more recently, on the French island of Haiti. Brown secretly obtained financial backing from several prominent Northern abolitionists. On the night of October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia)
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    The debates consisted on the issue of the slave territories. Neither wanted slavery in their territories but the didn't agree on how. Lincoln won.
  • Abraham Lincoln Becomes President

    Abraham Lincoln Becomes President
    Lincoln appeared to be moderate in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “inter- fere with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.” Nonetheless, many Southerners viewed him as an enemy.
  • Attack on fort Sumter

    Attack on fort Sumter
    Months earlier, as soon as the Confederacy was formed, Confederate soldiers in each secessionist state began seizing federal installations—especially forts. By the time of Lincoln’s inauguration on March 4, 1861, only four Southern forts remained in Union hands. The most important was Fort Sumter, on an island in Charleston harbor.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    he first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from Washington, D.C. The battle was a seesaw affair.
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    In February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate States of America, or Confederacy. They also drew up a constitution that closely resembled that of the United States, but with a few notable differences.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    McClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the Antietam. The clash proved to be the bloodi- est single-day battle in American history, with casualties totaling more than 26,000.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Gettysburg Adress

    Gettysburg Adress
    In November 1863, a ceremony was held to ded- icate a cemetery in Gettysburg. There, President Lincoln spoke for a little more than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address “remade America.”