Civil war

Civil War

  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
    The Emancipation Proclamation freed only those slaves who lived in states that were behind Confederate lines, and not yet under Union control. The government had to decide what to do about the border states, where slavery still existed. The president believed that the only solution was a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.
  • Missouri compromise

    Missouri compromise
    Behind the leadership of Henry Clay, Congress passed a series of agreements in 1820–1821 known as the Missouri Compromise. Under these agreements, Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. James Monroe was the President who signed the Compromise.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman was called “Moses” by those she helped escape on the Underground Railroad. In her later years, Tubman opened a home for elderly, orphaned, and needy African Americans.
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    The settlers and traders who made the trek west used a series of old Native American trails as well as new routes. One of the busiest routes was the Santa Fe Trail, which stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico.
  • San Felipe de austin

    San Felipe de austin
    Stephen obtained permission, first from Spain and then from Mexico after it had won its independence, to carry out his father’s project. In 1821 he established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane swearer, and no idler” would be allowed. The main settlement of the colony was named San Felipe de Austin, in Stephen’s honor.
  • Stephen F. Austin goes to jail

    Stephen F. Austin goes to jail
    Austin established a colony of American settlers in Tejas, or Texas, then the northernmost province of the Mexican state of Coahuila. However, Austin’s plans didn’t work out as well as he had hoped; 12 years later, he found himself in a Mexican prison and his new homeland in an uproar. After his release, Austin spoke about the impending crisis between Texas and Mexico.
  • Mexico Abolishes Slavery

    Mexico Abolishes Slavery
    Differences over cultural issues intensified between Anglos and the
    Mexican government. The overwhelmingly Protestant Anglo settlers spoke English instead of Spanish. Furthermore, many of the settlers were Southerners,who had brought slaves with them to Texas. Mexico, which had abolished slavery in 1829, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves.
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    The Liberator, weekly newspaper of abolitionist crusader William Lloyd Garrison for 35 years (January 1, 1831–December 29, 1865). It was the most influential antislavery periodical in the pre-Civil War period of U.S. history. Its circulation never grew beyond 3,000.
  • Nat Turner Rebellion

    Nat Turner Rebellion
    Some slaves rebelled against their condition of bondage. One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
    plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed many members of the group, including Turner.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. By driving their wagon as far as Fort Boise, they proved that wagons could travel on the Oregon Trail.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its
    independence from Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The phrase “manifest destiny” expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory.
  • Texas Enters the United States

    Texas Enters the United States
    In March 1845, angered by U.S.-Texas negotiation on annexation, the Mexican government recalled its ambassador from Washington. On December 29, 1845, Texas entered the Union. Events moved quickly toward war.
  • The Mexican American War

    The Mexican American War
    The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States from Apr 25, 1846 – Feb 2, 1848. Texas gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. Initially, the United States declined to incorporate it into the union, largely because northern political interests were against the addition of a new slave state.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    The North Star was a nineteenth-century anti-slavery newspaper published from the Talman Building in Rochester, New York by abolitionist Frederick Douglass
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    American troops in Mexico, led by U.S. generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, scored one military victory after another. After about a year of fighting, Mexico conceded defeat. On February 2,
    1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Henry Clay worked to shape a compromise that both the North
    and the South could accept. After obtaining support of the powerful
    Massachusetts senator Daniel Webster, Clay presented to the Senate a series of resolutions later called the Compromise of 1850.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Under the law, alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for up to six months.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    As time went on, free African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, hide fugitive slaves. The system of escape routes they used became known as the Underground Railroad.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Another woman brought the horrors of slavery into the homes of a great many Americans. In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Douglas introduced a bill in Congress on January 23, 1854, that would divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south. If passed, the bill would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories.
  • Dread Scott v. Stanford

    Dread Scott v. Stanford
    Dred Scott, a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man. The case was in court for years. Finally, on March 6, 1857, the Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    To counteract Douglas, Lincoln challenged the man known as the “Little Giant” to a series of debates on the issue of slavery in the territories. Douglas accepted the challenge, the stage was set for some of the most celebrated debates in U.S. history. The two men’s positions were simple and consistent. Neither wanted slavery in the territories, but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed deeply unpopular sovereignty. Lincoln, ,on the other hand, believed that slavery was immoral.
  • John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
    abolitionist John Brown was studying the slave uprisings that had
    occurred in ancient Rome and, more recently, on the French island of Haiti. He believed that the time was ripe for similar uprisings in the United States. Brown secretly obtained financial backing from several prominent Northern abolitionists. On the night of October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal and start a slave rise.
  • Abraham Lincoln becomes President

    Abraham Lincoln becomes President
    Lincoln appeared to be moderate in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere The Democratic Party finally split over slavery. Northern Democrats rallied behind Douglas and his doctrine of popular sovereignty. Lincoln emerged as the winner with less than half the popular
    vote and with no electoral votes from the South.
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    In February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in
    Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate States of America, or Confederacy.
  • Attack on fort sumter

    Attack on fort sumter
    Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it. He would merely send in “food for hungry men.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate batteries began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens. The deadly struggle between North and South was under way.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville.
  • Income Tax

    Income Tax
    In 1861, Lincoln imposes the first federal income tax by signing the Revenue Act. As the Northern economy grew, Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first income tax, a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
  • Battle at Antietam

    Battle at Antietam
    McClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the Antietam. The clash proved to be the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with casualties totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result, Lincoln removed him from command.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the designated areas of the South from slave to free.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863, is considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War. After a great victory over Union forces at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania in late June 1863. By the end of the first day of fighting, 90,000 Union troops under the command of General George Meade had taken the field against 75,000 Confederates, led by General Lee.
  • Gettysburg address

    Gettysburg address
    In November 1863, a ceremony was held to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg. There, President Lincoln spoke for a little more than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address “remade America.”
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    While Meade’s Army of the Potomac was destroying Confederate hopes in Gettysburg, Union general Ulysses S. Grant fought to take Vicksburg, one of the two remaining Confederate strongholds on the Mississippi River.
  • Conscription

    heavy casualties and widespread desertions led each side to impose conscription, a draft that forced men to serve in the army.
    In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place in New York City.
  • Sherman's March

    Sherman's March
    In the spring of 1864, Sherman began his march southeast through
    Georgia to the sea, creating a wide path of destruction. His army burned almost every house in its path and destroyed livestock and railroads. Sherman was determined to make Southerners “so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it.”By mid-November he had burned most of Atlanta. After reaching the ocean, Sherman’s forces followed by 25,000 former slaves turned north to help Grant.
  • Abolition

    Abolition, the movement to abolish slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • Surrender at Appomattox court house

    Surrender at Appomattox court house
    The location of this event was at the appomattox Court House National Historical Park, VALt. Col. Orville E. Babcock Maj Gen. Edward O. C. Ord Lt. Col. Horace Porter Capt. Robert T. Lincoln Lt. Col. Theodore S. Bowers Maj. Gen. Phillip H. Sheridan Brig. Gen. John Rawlins Brig. Gen. Rufus Ingalls Lt. Col. Adam Badeau Brig. Gen. George H. Sharpe Brig. Gen. Michael Morgan Brig. Gen. Seth Williams CSA, Gen. Robert E. Lee, Lt. Col. Charles Marshall, USA, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Lt. Col. Ely Parker
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    On April 14, 1865, five days after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Lincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theatre in Washington to see a British comedy, Our American Cousin. During its third act, a man crept up behind Lincoln and shot the president in the back of his head.