Temujin rises up in late 1100's and already has started his conquering of many armies and land.
Jan 1, 1200
Mongols' First Invasion of China
The seminomadic Mongols--coming from central Asia--take over a large portion of China, with a greater force, advanced weapons and better military tactics.
Jan 1, 1206
Genghis Khan's Start
A powerful ruler, Temujin, finally unites the previously warring Mongol clans and becomes the "Universal Ruler" Genghis Khan, building his empire on a great dominating military force.
Jan 1, 1207
Genghis Khan's Reign
Genghis Khan takes over Chinese and Turkish land time-after-time, using seige warfare and gunpowder.
Siege Warfare: The Mongol forces would surround or blockade a city, town or fortress and would attack at the same time, overwhelming the defenses of their enemies.
Jan 1, 1227
New Khans and Land Divides
Genghis Khan dies and gives his reign and land to his sons, splitting much of northern China and surrounding areas four ways.
Golden Horde: Batu, Genghis's grandson, leads an invading army of Mongols into Russia, Poland, Hungary, and eastern Europe.
Jan 1, 1235
Kublai's Earlier Pursuit
Kublai Khan, after the Mongols successfully had control over northern China, tries for several attempts to conquer the land that of southern China, the south defended by the Song dynasty.
Jan 1, 1260
New Mongol Leadership
After Genghis Khan's death, Kublai Khan takes Genghis Khan's old title as the "Great Ruler" of the Mongols.
Jan 1, 1278
Marco Polo in China
Marco Polo, coming from Venice, Italy, travels with his into the Yuan dynasty and eventually the emperor takes a liking to him and Marco Polo proceeds to perform to do missions for Kublai in and around China.
Jan 1, 1279
Kublai Khan's efforts, as the new ruler of the Mongols, finally defeating the Songs and takes over the land, founding the Yuan dynasty.
Jan 1, 1294
Kublai Dies and Mongol Reign Weakens
Kublai Khan dies, after a long stretch of weakening power, such as the naval fleets being taken out in a kamakaze storm, and his death leads to a lack of outstanding leadership and higher taxes on the people of the Yuan.
Kamakaze: A divine wind or storm that coincidentally wiped out the Mongol naval forces in a fight against the Japanese. It is used today to describe the overwhelming militarial efforts, no matter the outcome.
Jan 1, 1295
Marco Polo's Return To Italy
Marco Polo is captured in his return to Venice and is held captive, and in captivity, he writes of his ventures of China and of the splendor of the Grand Palace.
Jan 1, 1300
Yuan Oppression Develops Citizen Revolts
Factions of China, not liking the incresae in taxes and current government, rebel against the Yuan dynasty.
Jan 1, 1300
Black Death and Mongols
The Black Death wipes out the majority of Eurasia and the Mongols.
Black Death: A plague that was based off the the uncleanliness of people and was spread by rats.
Jan 1, 1368
Mongol's Eventual Overthrow
An army of rebels led by a peasant, Zhu Yuanzhang, manages to overthrow the Mongols, with the Mongols leaving to Manchuria out of fear of death and more upsets, and founds the Ming dynasty.
Jan 1, 1398
Zhu Yuanzhang Dies
In Zhu Yuanzhang's death he leaves his empire to disaray and a power struggle.
Jan 1, 1400
Forbidden City is Built
The Forbidden City is built for the housing of the emperor, his family and his constituents. The area had markets only available to a select few of families that could afford it or found themselves at that level of the government.
The Forbidden City: a place of residence and commerce for the Emperor of the Ming dynasty. Today, the city is place for tourists and educational purposes.
Jan 1, 1402
Power Struggle Subsides as Yonglo Seizes Throne
Zhu Yuanzhang's son Yonglo takes his father's heavily fought for position in the government, and begins the building of the Forbidden City.
Jan 1, 1405
Chinese Naval Expanses Seen Through Zheng He
A Chinese Muslim Admiral, Zheng He begins to lead numerous series of large trading fleets to trade with foreigners around the Indian Ocean.
Junks: Trading ships used by the Chinese, built to carry large quantities of goods across the ocean.
Jan 1, 1424
Yonglo No Longer Reigns
Yonglo's reign over the Ming peoples dies.
Jan 1, 1433
Money Limits Trans-Oceanic Trade
Trading with overseas peoples had stopped due to the high number of resorces by the government used on each endevour.
Jan 1, 1500
Ming Limit the Overall Trade for Preservation of Culture
The Ming try to control and limit trade among foreign parts of the area, in fear of the detriment of China's traditions being influenced by outside ideas.
Jan 1, 1560
Start of Ming Decline
Due to weak, corrupt leaders and increased defense taxes because of constant attempted invasions, taxes were raised and were frowned upon by those paying them.
Education is Brought by a Foreigner
Despite the will to control foreign input into China, a European Jesuit Priest, Matteo Rucci, prgressed his way through the heirarchy of the dynasty and introduces a more complex set of Mathmatics and Sciences.
Great Wall of China: A defense barrier built by the Ming to defend against the Mongol invaders of the north. Today it is often used as a tourist attraction and has no current role in the defense of China.
Rebellions Further the Ming Decline
High taxes, famine, and hardship propel the people of the Ming dynasty to rebel against their oppressive government.
Mongols Move Back Into the Area
The Mongol people of Manchu take advantage of the chaos presented in the Ming dynasty and form an entirely new dynasty, derooting the Ming, the Qing dynasty.
Queue: A braid that men in the Qing dynasty were to wear to conform to the society. It is used now as an everyday braid females particularly wear for fashion.
New Ruling and New Schooling
Kangxi takes hold of Qin dynasty and promotes a flourishing economy, while bringing Jesuit scholars/ priests to the capitol, the Chinese gaining technical advances in mathmatics and sciences with the moving of the priests.
"Greatest Piece" of Chinese Literature is Written and Published
The said China's greatest novel is written, "Dream of the Red Chamber," by Cao Zhan--It examines the decline of an upper-class aristocratic Chinese family.
Expansion of Rule Under Qianlong
The grandson of Kagxi, Qianlong captures Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet, expanding the economy and land power the Qing has.
Kangxi No Longer Holds Power
Kangxi's rule over his portion of the Qing ends.
Macartney's Attempts to Open Trade Between China and Britain Fail
British goods are brought by Lord Geaorge Macartney in order to assemble a hopeful trade connection with the Chinese trade system, the British goods are seen as substandard and no trade connections between the countries is presented.
Kowtowing: Lord George Macartney was told to kneel in front of the Chinese emperor, but refused to do so. Today people, like back then kowtow to show respect to deities or people deserving respect.
Qianlong's End of Rule
Qianlong's rule over the land and people of his expansion expires.
British Trade Brings Downfall of Qing
More efforts are made to develop trade with China and Britain by the British, and the attempts bring with them their ideas that are controversial to the Chinese ruling system, people revolt and the Qing's imperial rule ends.