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Mongols, Ming and Qing Dynasties

  • Dec 1, 1100

    Temujin Conquers Rivals

    Temujin Conquers Rivals
    Temujin is a powerful khan, or chief, of a Mongol clan. He begins to conquer his rivals and attempts to unite the Mongol clans under one ruler.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Mongols Emerge

    Mongols Emerge
    The Mongols emerge as a fearsome fighting force in Central Asia and they begin conquering territory. Their superb strategic tactics and brutality allow them to conquer more land and people by fear alone.
  • Jan 1, 1206

    Temujin Unites Mongols

    Temujin Unites Mongols
    Temujin accomplishes his goal of conquering all of China and uniting the Mongols into one cohesive fighting force. When he takes the title of Great Khan, he takes the name Genghis Khan.
  • Jan 1, 1207

    Genghis Khan Conquers Parts of Asia

    Genghis Khan Conquers Parts of Asia
    They fight against the Chinese and the Turks using gunpowder and siege warfare. The Mongols take many cities in all throughout Asia. siege warfare- a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault
  • Jan 1, 1227

    Genghis Khan Dies

    Genghis Khan Dies
    He leaves his dynasty to four of his heirs, each ruling over a khanate, or region.
  • Jan 1, 1235

    Mongols Take On China

    Mongols Take On China
    They are very resilient and determined to take control of the remaining parts of China that are not under their control. They wish to conquer more than their one khanate.
  • Jan 1, 1236

    The Golden Horde Takes on Russia

    The Golden Horde Takes on Russia
    Under Genghis khan's grandson Batu, the Mongols conquer Moscow, destroy Kiev and storm both Poland and Hungary. Their conquest comes to a halt when the Great Khan dies. Golden Horde- the Tartar and Mongol army, led by the descendants of genghis Khan, that overran Asia and parts of eastern Europe in 13th century.
  • Jan 1, 1260

    Kublai Khan Takes the Lead

    Kublai Khan Takes the Lead
    Kublai becomes the Great Khan of the Mongols after the death of the previous leader. However, his power is limited to the khanate of the Great Khan and he yearns for more.
  • Jan 1, 1279

    Song Dynasty is Defeated

    Song Dynasty is Defeated
    The last Song ruler is defeated and the Dynasty finally crumbles after years of pressure from the Mongols. Kublai Khan declares himself emperor. Song Dynasty- an imperial dynasty of China from 960-1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy
  • Jan 1, 1290

    Mongols Invade Japan (and fail)

    Mongols Invade Japan (and fail)
    Kublai Khan leads the Mongols into many failed invasions of southeast Asia to expand the territory of his empire. Several thousand people are killed in battle. kamikaze-
    (then) the winds/storms that destroyed the Mongol fleet when they were attacking Japan; the brutal storm convinced the Mongols to never come back (now) - a Japanese aircraft loaded with explosives and making a deliberate suicidal crash on an enemy target
  • Jan 1, 1294

    Kublai Khan Dies

    Kublai Khan Dies
    After his death, turmoil takes over the empire and the Yuan Dynasty is greatly weakened.
  • Jan 1, 1295

    Marco Polo Returns to Venice

    Marco Polo Returns to Venice
    Marco Polo returns to Venice with his father. Soon thereafter, Polo is captured as a prisoner of war.
  • Jan 1, 1300

    The Black Death Spreads Westward

    The Black Death Spreads Westward
    The Silk Roads provide a secure way for goods and people to travel, but they also spread disease. The Black Death spread via the Silk Road from Asia through the Middle East to Europe. Black Death- a great epidemic of bubonic plague that killed a large part of the population of Europe in the 14th century
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Chinese Regions Rebel

    Chinese Regions Rebel
    Rapidly rising taxes create dissatisfaction and incontent people. Some regions of China decide to rebel against their ruler and lead rebel armies against the Mongols.
  • Jan 1, 1368

    Fall of the Mongol Empire / Rise of the Ming Empire

    Fall of the Mongol Empire / Rise of the Ming Empire
    The Yuan Dynasty falls due to the continued attacks and the Mongols escape to Manchuria. With the Mongols gone, there are no longer any foreign rulers. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang heads the final attack and founds the Ming Dynasty after the fall of the Mongol Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1398

    Hongwu Dies

    Hongwu Dies
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Forbidden City is Built

    Forbidden City is Built
    The city is built for China's Ming emperor and his servants. It is lavish and strong, with many extraordinary buildings and architectural works. It is located in the capital of Bejing.
  • Jan 1, 1402

    Yonglu Becomes Emperor

    Yonglu Becomes Emperor
    Yonglu, Hongwu's son, becomes the ruler of the Ming Empire until 1424. He moves the capital to Bejing and builds the Forbbiden City. Forbidden City- An area of Beijing, China, that contained the former imperial palaces, to which entry was forbidden to all except imperial family members.
  • Jan 1, 1405

    Zheng He Begins Traveling Around the Indian Ocean

    Zheng He Begins Traveling Around the Indian Ocean
    Zheng He is a Chinese Muslim who leads seven voyages around the Indian Ocean with fleets of as many as 300 ships. Gifts from China to places around the Indian Ocean bring tributes from several other leaders to China. junks- a flat-bottomed sailing vessel typical in China and the East Indies, with a prominent stem, a high stern, and lugsails.
  • Jan 1, 1433

    Zheng He's Voyages End

    Zheng He's Voyages End
    A new emperor takes the throne and demands an end to sea voyages because they are expensive and he does not see their benefit. Instead, the new emperor focuses on strengthening the frontiers.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Ming Restrict Trading

    Ming Restrict Trading
    Foreign traders are frowned upon and are unable to legally trade in most places at most times. However, many traders become smugglers and hold a thriving black market. They isolate themselves from foreigners because of the arrival of Europeans and Christian missionaries. The Chinese refuse to allow the different cultures to change theirs, and they fight to maintain tradition.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    New Crops Come to China

    New Crops Come to China
    Corn and sweet potatoes from the Americas arrive in China and thrive under the agricultural succes of the Ming period.
  • Dec 1, 1500

    Ming Dynasty Begins to Decline

    Ming Dynasty Begins to Decline
    After numerous impotent rulers, the Ming Dynasty begins to weaken and becomes corrupt. In an effort to strengthen the defense, the treasury is raided and taxes are raised. High taxes, wek rulers,and an agricultural failure bring about many rebellions in China.
  • Jan 1, 1538

    Matteo Ricci Arrives in China

    Matteo Ricci Arrives in China
    He is an Italian Jesuit priest and he gains a lot of influence in the Chinese society by learning the language and adapting to the traditions there. After he gains access to the Ming court, he introduces European mathematics and science.
  • Jan 1, 1538

    Ming Face Mongol Attacks

    Ming Face Mongol Attacks
    The Mongols begin to attack parts of China, so they rebuild the Great Wall of China and strengthen their defenses by lengthening the Great Wall. the Great Wall of China- a fortified wall in northern China, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from Kansu province to the Yellow Sea north of Beijing.
  • The Manchu Take Beijing

    The Manchu Take Beijing
    Invaders from Manchuria invade and conquer the capital of the Ming Empire, Beijing. The current Ming Emperor commits suicide to avoid imprisonment.
  • Qing (Ching) Empire is Formed

    Qing (Ching) Empire is Formed
    After the death of the Ming emperor, the Manchu take over and form the Qing Empire. This empire will be the last dynasty of imperial rule in China.
  • Manchu Adopt Chinese Customs

    Manchu Adopt Chinese Customs
    Because they are foreigners, the Manchu attempt to appease the disgruntled Chinese by adopting their customs and much of the Ming government. They have many Chinese officers and keep Confucian ethics. However, they do not allow Manchurians to marry Chinese, and they ban foot binding for the Manchus too. queue- a hairstyle typically worn by the Manchu; a braid down the back
  • Kangxi Becomes Ruler

    Kangxi Becomes Ruler
    Kangxi becomes the Qing emperor from 1661 through 1772. He brings a period of growth in China by reducing taxes and expanding the empire.
  • "Dream of the Red Chamber" is Published

    "Dream of the Red Chamber" is Published
    During the Qing period literature rises and many stories and novels are published. One of these is the "Dream of the Red Chamber" (written by Cao Zhan) that is written about an upper-class Chinese family and its decline. It is largely considered China's greatest novel.
  • Qianlong Becomes Ruler

    Qianlong Becomes Ruler
    Qianlong, Kangxi's grandson, brings a huge era of development and growth to the Qing Dynasty through 1796. He expands the empire, increases agricultural production, increases the population, and improves transportation.
  • Population Surge

    Population Surge
    Under Quianlong the Chinese population skyrockets to 300 million people due to the agricultural success and the overabundance of food and supplies.
  • Lord George Macartney Arrives in China

    Lord George Macartney Arrives in China
    Lord George Macartney, a British official, comes to China intent on expanding Chinese trading. The Chinese scoff at his "goods" and he refuses to show the proper show of respect to the emperor, so they send him away without a second thought. kowtowing- kneel and touch the ground with the forehead in worship or submission as part of Chinese custom.
  • Europeans Attempt to End Isolation in China

    Europeans Attempt to End Isolation in China
    The Europeans try to open up the mysterious closed society of China, but fail. However, these prying efforts bring about the fall of the Qing Dynasty.