Ap world history

AP World History Final Project

  • Period: 615 to 1279

    Tang and Song Dynasties

    The Tang Dynasty came before the Song Dynasty. It expanded land and was known for its art, which later contributed to the Golden Age. During this time gunpowder was invented. The Song Dynasty revived Confucianism, but it also supported and embraced Buddhism. During the Song Dynasty, rice became an essential crop for the Chinese. It was drought-resistant, so they were able to produce more rice. The Song Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, which led to the reign of Kublai Khan.
  • Period: 750 to 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    The Abbasid Caliphate was a dynasty that ruled over the Islamic Empire. They overthrew the Umayyad Empire. The person who led the Abbasids was known as the "caliph." This person was usually the son of the previous caliph and the head of Isalm. Starting in the 11th century, the Abbasid Caliphate started to fragment. Their culture was known as the "Golden Age" of Islam. The Abbasids also moved the capital to Baghdad. They were overthrown by an invasion by the Mongols in 1258.
  • Period: 901 to 1500

    Feudalism in Europe

    The Feudal System is a social hierarchy. A vassal would earn a piece of land in return for serving a lord. The land that the vassals got were called fiefs. Peasants were at the bottom of the pyramid, and the kings were at the top of the pyramid. Feudalism helped protect communities in Europe from violence after the fall of Rome. Feudalism developed mostly in Western Europe. Feudalism ended in Europe because of the Crusades, and they went from a land-based economy to a money-based economy.
  • Period: 1206 to 1368

    Mongol Empire

    The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206, and it was the biggest empire in history. He encouraged tolerance of all religions in the Mongol Empire. It spread from East Asia to most of Eastern Europe.The Mongols were nomadic people, which means that they moved around. The Mongols had a strong army because they fought on horses. They also made many advancements in medicine and astronomy. When Kublai Khan took over, it separated into khanates which led to the Ming Dynasty taking over.
  • Period: 1206 to 1555

    Delhi Sultanate

    The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic Empire. It was established by the Central Asian Islamic Turks. It ruled most of Northern India, and what is now Pakistan. They are known for not making Indians convert to Islam, but if they did not they had to pay a head tax, which is a Jizya. A sultan is the head of the state. The Delhi Sultanate is important because they started the Muslim rule in China. They were replaced by the Mughal Empire after Babur killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat.
  • Period: 1235 to

    Mali Empire

    The Mali empire was powerful because it was extremely wealthy. They explored trade routes from the Sahara Desert to Europe and the Middle East. Mansa Musa was the most famous Mali emperor. Mansa Musa took a pilgrimage to Mecca. He had a lot of gold but he gave all of it away on his Pilgrimage. The Mali Empire was the largest empire in West Africa, and it influenced its culture in other areas through their language, customs, etc. After Mansa Musa died, the empire became weak and ended.
  • Period: 1271 to 1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    The Yuan Dynasty was started by Kublai Khan, who was the leader of the Mongol Empire. It was the first dynasty led by foreigners in China. Kublai Khan believed that the foreigners were more trustworthy. He eliminated the Civil Service Exam and he encouraged foreign trade. The Yuan Dynasty was the first dynasty to use paper money. They didn't invent the printing press, but they made it more effective. This dynasty was replaced with the Ming Dynasty after Zhu's army captured the capital of Yuan.
  • Period: 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire was located in Southeastern Europe and the Middle East. The official religion of the Ottomans was Islam (Sunni). They had a lot of accomplishments in medicine including inventing the scalpel, forceps, and catheter. They studied astronomy and physics. They were the longest-lasting empire in the world. They used the Devshirme System, which allowed them to take Christian boys to serve the government.This empire fell because of inflation. It was replaced by the Turkish Republic.
  • Period: 1300 to

    European Renaissance

    The European Renaissance was a period of cultural, artistic, political, and economic rebirth after the Middle Ages. The Renaissance increased trade and improved the shortage of labor caused by the Bubonic Plague. Some important people from the Renaissance are Martin Luther, Michelangelo, and Shakespeare. Art, literature, and technology was prevalent during this time. The Renaissance laid a foundation for the Age of Exploration. Due to all the new changes, it boosted the economy of Europe.
  • Period: 1342 to 1353

    Bubonic Plague

    The Bubonic Plague started in China, and it spread through the Silk Road. It was spread by fleas, and approximately 1/3-1/4 of the population died. Some social effects of the plague included that people lost faith in Christianity, and people began to leave urban areas to escape the plague. Some people (flagellants) hurt themselves because they thought it would stop the plague. Since people were loosing faith, the Catholic Church lost power. Feudalism declined, and the Serf's wages increased.
  • Period: 1368 to

    Ming Dynasty

    Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming Dynasty. The Ming Dynasty is known for its trade expansion to the world, which made cultural ties with the West. The majority of the Great Wall of China was also built by the Ming Dynasty. The Forbidden City was built when the Yongle Emperor ruled. Zheng He went on a lot of voyages during this era. It's also famous for its porcelain and ceramics. This dynasty ended because of economic disaster and attacks by the Manchus. The Machus took over with the Qing Dynasty.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Age of Exploration

    The Age of Exploration was a period of time whenEuropean ships travelled around the world in search for new trading routes. During this time advances were made in navigation. Some of the explorers included Vasco de Gama, Christopher Columbus,and Bartolomeu. Vasco de Gama found a sea route to Asia and Bartolomeu was the first to reach the southern tip of Africa. This time was important because it led to the explorers learning new information about different areas, and bringing it back to Europe.
  • Period: 1401 to

    Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade was the transportation of 10-12 million Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. They used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage.The triangular trade route was where textiles and wine were shipped from Europe to Africa and slaves were were shipped from Africa to the Americas. Sugar and coffee were shipped from the Americas to Europe.The slave trade was abolished, but it continued illegally in the 19th century. It was the greatest forced migration.
  • Period: 1428 to 1572

    Mesoamerican Empires (Aztecs and Incas)

    The Aztecs became before the Incas. The Aztec civilization started in 1428, and the Incas started in 1438. Women served vital roles in the Aztec Tribute System. Aztec women served in religious and government roles. They expanded around Lake Texcoco, and they demanded tribute from communities. The Incas lived in what is now the Andes Mountains. They were very religious and they did a lot of farming. Smallpox led to the end of the Aztecs and Francisco Pizarro (Spanish explorer) invaded the Incas.
  • Period: 1492 to

    Spanish Colonial Empire

    The Spanish Colonial Empire flourished in Spain and Spanish America. They used the Encomienda System, which was Spain's first colonial system in the New World.This system was similar to Europe's feudal system.Encomendas were granted lead by the king.The government in the the New World that was called viceroyalties.Viceroys were executives of the colonies who were appointed by the king of Spain. They collected taxes and supervised Spanish soldiers. The important viceroys were New Spain and Peru.
  • Period: 1498 to

    Portuguese Trading Post Empire

    The Portuguese Trading Post Empire was made to control trade routes by merchant vessels to pay duties at trading sites. By the mid 16th century, Portuguese merchants had over 50 trading posts between West Africa and East Asia. Afonso de Albuquerque led the Portuguese navy during the Trading Post Empire, and sought to control the Indian Ocean trade by forcing all merchants to purchase safe-conduct passes. This event was important because it spread the knowledge of Asians to other nations.
  • Period: 1517 to

    The Reformation

    The Reformation started when Martin Luther (a German Monk) started to protest the Catholic Church. He published the 95 Theses and it made people turn against the Catholic Church.The church split into Catholics and Protestants.The Bible was translated to English. The Edict of Nantes was passed by Henry IV and it granted religious tolerance to all Christians in France.The Council of Trent was the Catholic's attempt to revitalize the church. This event increased literacy and passion for education.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan.The Mughals were Muslims who ruled with a large Hindu majority. Babur was the first ruler. The Mughal Empire was successful because of their powerful army and they had a lot of gunpowder. They traded spices, textile, and opium to the Portuguese and they traded with the Persians for weapons.The Mughals traded by using their crops. They had a centralized government, which was easier to control. Foreign invasions led to the decline of this empire.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    The Tokugawa Shogunate was a time of peace and cultural growth in Japan. It was also known as the Edo Period. One of the goals of the Tokugawa Shogunate was to keep Christianity away from Japan. There was a lot of economic growth and urbanization during this time.Tokugawa leyasu was one of Japan's "three unifiers" and he established the Tokugawa Shogunate. He did not want Japan to be exposed to westernization. When the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown, emperor Meiji became the leader of Japan.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China. They used some of the Ming's policies.The Qing Dynasty carried on the Isolationist policies of the Ming Dynasty, but they were not as strict. Arts flourished during this dynasty, and it was a time of peace and prosperity. The Chinese territory also expanded into Tibet and Central Asia. Qianlong was the fourth emperor of the dynasty who made these changes. The Qing Dynasty ended in 1911 because of corruption and ruler incompetence.
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that made people think for themself and question things.The Enlightenment thinkers included John Locke, Voltaire, Mary Wollstonecraft, etc. John Locke believed that natural rights were liberty, life, and property. Voltaire opposed absolutism and criticized Christianity. Mary Wollstonecraft fought for women to be able to get an education.This movement helped lead to the American Revolution because America thought there should be more self-governing.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution was a time when the economy changed from agrarian-based to large-scale industry based. It started in Britain and spread to other parts of the world. More workers started to work in factories since new technology was being made. Inventions such as the water frame and spinning jenny eliminated the cottage industry. The new technology made it easier to produce things faster. The Industrial Revolution led to more jobs, bad working conditions, child labor, and pollution.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    The American Revolution was when the British colonists that lived in America rebelled against the rule of Great Britain.Many people died in battles, but the colonies finally got their freedom.They became independent from the U.S. Events such as the Boston Tea Party and the Stamp Act occurred.The Boston Tea Party was when tea was thrown in the harbor to protest the British taxes on tea.The Stamp Act taxed transactions in the colonies. This revolution increased people's participation in politics.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a time when people decided to overthrow the monarchy and take control. Louis XlV was an absolute monarch, and people decided that they didn't want one person to have all of the power. The French Revolution also helped to spread the ideas of the Enlightenment around Europe. Feudalism was completely abolished during this time. The Reign of Terror also occurred, which was caused by the French Revolution. Anybody who did not support the revolution was executed/beheaded.
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian Revolution is known as "the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere." The goal of this revolution was to abolish slavery in in St. Domingue, which had social instability. During this battle, the Haitians won their independence from France. They were the first country to be founded by people who were once slaves. The Haitian Revolution ended slavery in Haiti. Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Toussant Louverture were both leaders of the Haitian Revolution.
  • Period: to

    Tanzimat Reforms

    The Tanzimat Reforms was a series of governmental changes that were made to centralize the Ottoman's rule. These reforms tried to modernize the Ottoman Empire so that it wouldn't decline. The reforms were not successful and the Ottoman Empire declined. The reforms included educational, political, and economic changes. In 1869, a plan for state education was made, but it did not happen because they did not have enough money to implement a lot of the reforms.Therefore, the Ottoman Empire declined.
  • Period: to

    Opium Wars

    The Opium Wars consisted of the first Opium War (1839-1842) and the second Opium War (1856-1860).Conflicts were fought in China between the western countries and the Qing Dynasty.The first Opium War was fought between China and Great Britain,and the second Opium War was fought by Great Britain and France against China.They were caused by China trying to end the illegal opium trade. Great Britain won the first Opium War and Great Britain and France won the second war.China did not win either war.
  • Period: to

    Taiping Rebellion

    The Taiping Rebellion was a revolt against the Qing Dynasty in China.It was fought with religious convictions over the economic conditions.Hong Xiuquan led the rebellion.He believed that he was the son of God.Some of the effects of the rebellion included major changes in social and economic structure.It was important because it eventually led to the end of the dynastic rule in China. An estimated 20 million people died during the rebellion.The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty to rule in China.
  • Period: to

    Sepoy Mutiny

    The Sepoy Mutiny was a rebellion against British rule in India. It started in Meerut by the Indian troops (sepoys) for the British East India Company. The British East India Company was "an English company formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India." The Sepoy Mutiny led to the fall of the British East India Company. This led to the British taking control of India. The Sepoy Mutiny was unsuccessful because of a lack of communication with the Indians.
  • Period: to

    Meiji Revolution

    The Meiji Revolution was a political revolution that ended the Tokugawa period. The causes of the Meiji Revolution included problems in Japan that made it difficult to rule, and the feudal system was dying. The effect of the Meiji Revolution was that it spread modernization and westernization. The leaders of the restoration were mostly samurai. The first railroad was also built during this time. In order to modernize things, they had to use Western technology, so they promoted western culture.
  • Period: to

    Scramble for Africa

    The Scramble for Africa was when the Europeans invaded, colonizing, and annexed the African territory.It occurred during the New Imperialism period. The Europeans wanted to colonize Africa for economic, political, and religious reasons.An economic depression was occurring in Europe; they were running out of money.The Scramble for Africa also led to World War l.It also led to the artificial drawing of boundaries for European powers. There was partitioning of ethnicities in the new African states.
  • Period: to

    Berlin Conference

    The Berlin Conference was a meeting between European nations in order to make rules on how to divide Africa among them for colonization. It was important because it played a major role in the colonization of Africa.The conference also led to free trade among the colonies.The three conditions of the Berlin Conference were that slave trade was allowed,most lakes and river were considered neutral,and Africa would be divided among European nations and America.They wanted to regulate trade in Africa.