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Chinese Dynasties

  • Jan 1, 740

    Chinese Population

    Population in Tang China reached about 70 million thanks to the growing agricultural world. Thanks to farmers, nearly 100 million people were fed. Because of this, China became the most populous country in the world.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    Genghis Khan

    A Mongol ruler named Temujin united the mass of Mongol empires by conquering his enemies. Temujin was a peasent at first, but as time wore on, he made his way up the military ranks. In 1206 he changed his name to Genghis Khan, or "universal ruler". His plan was to build a vast empire, adn he was fierce in war.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Mongols Emerge

    They were considered history's most brutal and efficant military forces, and they traveled in divisions on 10,000. The Mongols were excellent tacticions and used admirable weaponry, and they were brutal and insidious. The Mongols came from central China.
  • Jan 1, 1207

    Mongol Conquering

    Genghis Khan and his Mongol army take over much of Asia. Mongol soldiers begin to learn to use siege warfare in battle and gunpowder began to be used.
    Siege Warfare: act or process of surrounding and attacking a fortified place in such a way as to isolate it from help and supplies, for the purpose of lessening the resistance of the defenders and thereby making capture possible.
  • Jan 1, 1227

    Genghis Khan Dies

    Genghis Khan dies, leaving his heirs to rule his great empire. His empire is divided into 4 khanates. Each of his heir's would rule one region, and one heir would rule the entire empire. The Great Khan was the ruler of the entire empire. Each of Genghis Khan's heirs continued conquering and adding land to the empire. Their conquering destroyed much of Eurasia.
    The Golden Horde: Genghis Khan's grandson brought his troops into eastern Europe and established the rule of the Golden Horde in Russia.
  • Jan 1, 1235

    Conquest of China

    Kublai Khan begins the conquest of China. This would mean defeating the Song dynasty, which ruled the south. When he finally conquered the Song dynasty, he became the first foreigner to rule China.
  • Jan 1, 1260

    Kublai Khan Becomes the Great Khan

    Kublai Khan becomes the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and defeats the final ruler of the Song Dynasty. Kublai Khan did not change the Chinese way of life too drastically, although Chinese couldn't hold high government positions. Under his rule, the Grand Canal was extended for trading purposes. Kublai Khan was considered the greatest Mongol ruler, next to Genghis Khan, of course.
    Song Dynasty: the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy.
  • Jan 1, 1278

    Marco Polo Comes to China

    Marco Polo and his father traveled to China and, by the request of Kublai Khan, traveled for 17 years around China. After these travels, Marco and his father returned to their home in Venice, Italy. In 1295, Marco was improsoned during a battle. After being told of Marco's adventures in China, his cell mate wrote them all down and had them published in a book.
  • Jan 1, 1279

    End of Mongol Rule Nearing

    Kublai Khan had conquered China, but after he died and rebellions began, a new dynasty began to emerge from the ground, the Ming Dynasty.
  • Jan 1, 1294

    Kublai Khan Dies

    Kublai Khan dies and the Mongol Empire began to decline. Kublai Khan's successors weren't as strong of leaders as Kublai Khan and rebellions started to spring up. China floods and high taxes didn't help the falling economy, either.
    Kamikaze: Devine wind; Winds that destroyed the Mongols when they tried to invade
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Black Death Decends

    During a time of peace and stability in the Mongol Empire, a disease known as Black Death decended upon the land and killed much of the European population, and also spread into Asia and the Middle East.
    Black Death: form of bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated quarter of the population.
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Mongol Peace

    Althoug the Mongols were brutal fighting machines, they expreienced a time of peace in the 1300's. The Islam religion was adopted and local beliefs were tolerated. This time period is also called the Pax Mongolia.
  • Jan 1, 1368

    Mongols Defeated

    The mongol Empire is defeated by a rebel army. Flooding, high taxes, and weak rulers all added up adn angered the population, which resulted in rebellions. This ended the rule of the Mongols.
  • Jan 1, 1368

    Ming Dynasty Begins

    A rebel army led by a peasant by the name of Zhu Yuanzhang, or Hongwu, overthrew the last Mongol ruler. He then began the Ming Dynasty, which lasted for almost 300 years.
  • Jan 1, 1398

    Rule of Yonglo

    Hongwu dies and his son, Yonglo, takes power. Yonglo's reign lasts from 1402-1424. Yonglo moved the capital to Beijing and built the Forbidden City.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Forbidden City

    The Forbidden City was built in Beijing for China's Ming Emperor and his family, his court, and his servants. No commoner was allowed into the Forbidden City.
    Forbidden City: a walled section of Peking, built in the 15th century, containing the imperial palace and other buildings of the imperial government of China.
  • Jan 1, 1405

    Zheng He

    Zheng He sails around the Indian Ocean, trading Chinese goods. He traveled in huge fleets of ships, up to 300, to show off China's power. In 1433, though, his expeditions were ended due to expense and recources.
    Junks: a seagoing ship with a traditional Chinese design and used primarily in Chinese waters, having square sails spread by battens, a high stern, and usually a flat bottom.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Ming Dynasty Begins to Falls

    After adding Korea, Mongolia, and parts of Central and Southeast Asia to the Ming Dynasty, the dynasty began to fall. This was due to weak rulers and heavy taxes, as well as heavy taxes. Also, a great deal of the Great wall of China was built during the Ming rule.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Ming Isolation

    The Mign Dynasty makes an effort to isolate themselves from the rest of the world due to incoming Christain missionaries and European traders. Also, to prevent raids from the Mongols, the Great Wall of China went under serious repairs.
    The Great Wall of China: a system of fortified walls with a roadway along the top, constructed as a defense for China against the nomads of the regions that are now Mongolia and Manchuria.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Matteo Ricci

    Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci introduced European math and science to the Ming Dynasty. After learning the Chinses language and customs, Ricci became a respected member of the Ming Court.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Growth in China

    Crops from the Americas, such as sweet potatoes and corn, began to filter into China. China's irrigation also improved substantially, which increased the production of crops and boosted the Chinese economy. As the crops grew, the population also grew. The growing population led to more production of Chinese goods. Looks like everything is growing!
  • Manchu Conquering

    During the rebellions of the Ming Dynasty, the Manchu came in and take over the capital. From this, the Qing Dynsaty emerged. This dynasty lasted for about 3,500 years and was the last Chinese dynasty.
  • Qing Dynasty

    During the rule of the Qing dynasty, rulers Kangxi and Qianlong conquered more land and got rid of the taxes places on peasants. They also brought the Qing dynasty to what could be considered new heights and great prosperity.
    Queue: Hair style similar to a braid that the Manchu wore.
  • Kangxi

    An emporer of the Qing dynasty in China, Kangxi reduced the taxes on peasants and expanded his great empire considerably. Kangxi was more openminded towards the Europens than some, he enjoyed learning about science, math, and other subjects from them.
  • Cao Zhan

    Qing writer Cao Zhan wrote one of China's greatest novels, Dream of the Red Chamber. This novel was about an upper-class family and their decline.
  • Arts and Literature

    Both under the rule of Ming and Qing dynasties, arts and literature flourished. Books began to be written in everyday language, so the everyday commoners could read them.
  • Qing Prosperity

    The Qing dynasty reached its heigth under the rule of Qian Long, Kangxis' grandson. Under Qian Long, Mongolia and Tibet were conquered and added to the dynasty.
  • Qianlong

    Qianlong, grandson of Kangxi, ruled the Qing dynasty strongly. Under his rule, the Qing dynasty reached its height. He conquered Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet, and during his rule the agricultural production increased, as well as the population. His reign ended in 1796.
  • Lord George Macartney

    Lord George Macartney, a British trader, brought good quality goods to China in 1793. The Chinese agreed to trade with him, on the exception that he must kowtow. Lord George Macartney wouldn't do it, so the Chinese refused to trade with him and sent him away.
    Kowtowing: kneeling in front of someone importand and touching the forehead to the ground nine times.
  • European Influence

    Although China was one of the most advanced civilizatons at the time, their isolation kept them from European advances. The Europeans began to pry open the door to isolated China. This would eventually lead to the fall of the Qing dynasty.