A nomadic group from the north of China, the Mongol force moved into China, striking terror into the heart of the people. They gained power and soon dominated the area.
Jan 1, 1206
Genghis Khan or the "universal ruler" took power. Formerly known as Temujn, he gained power over the Mongols through his military power and skills.
Jan 1, 1207
Mongols take more land
For the last 20 years of Genghis Khan's rule, they used superior war tactics to conquer most of Asia.
Siege Warfare: Conquering land by assalt and attacking.
Jan 1, 1227
Genghis Khan Died
By the time he died, Genghis Khan had taken most of central Asia and northern China.
Jan 1, 1236
Golden Horde Took Russia
The grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu, decided to take up the task of conquering Russia. With his Golden Horde, he took Moscow and stormed through Poland and Hungary. Having devestated most of Eurasia, they went home.
Jan 1, 1260
Kublai Khan became the Great Khan of the Mongol empire. He was determined to take over the rest of China, a goal which would take him many years to achieve.
Jan 1, 1279
Song Dynasty defeated
After working for 20 years to defeate the Song dynasty, Kublai Khan finally defeated the last Song ruler.
Jan 1, 1294
Kublai Khan Dies
When Kublai Khan died in 1294, huge power struggles errupted across his empire over who would hold the throne. These struggles weakened the Yuan's rule and eventually lead to their downfall.
Jan 1, 1295
A young Italian trader, Marco Polo went to China and the emperor took a liking to him. He then traveled for 17 years around China before returning home. He was then captured and imprisioned during a battle, and told his memories of China to a fellow prisioner who wrote them down. Later they were published and became a huge success.
Jan 1, 1300
Black Death Spreads.
Spreading from Asia to the middle east and later wiping out most of Europe, this spread at the same time that innovations such as gunpowder and other ideas did.
Jan 1, 1368
After the death of Kublai Khan, there were rebelions all across China. Finally, in 1368, the Mongols were deafeated, ending foreign rule in China.
Jan 1, 1368
Peasant Zhu Yuanzhang formed a rebel army and overthrew the Monogl dynasty. He then took power, changed his name to Hongwu, and formed the "brilliant" Ming dynasty that wold rule China for nearly 300 years. They would rebuild much of the Great Wall of China during this period.
Jan 1, 1398
The great ruler Hongwu who established the Ming dynasty died in 1398. A great power struggle followed his death.
Jan 1, 1400
Forbidden City Built
The emperor of the Ming dynasty built what is known as the Forbidden City for his family and servants. It was so big it was known as the "city within a city".
Jan 1, 1402
Yonglo takes power
After a long power struggled, Hongwu's son Yonglo would take the throne after this death. He then ruled for 22 years.
Jan 1, 1405
A Chinese Muslim admiral named Zheng led seven voyages around the Indian Ocean bettween the years 1405 and 1433. He sailed with a fleet of up to 300 boats, and traded with many other empires.
Jan 1, 1433
After exploring for 28 years, Zheng He's voyages were stopped by a new emeperor. He said they were too expensive and that China's resources would be better used in their own country.
Jan 1, 1500
Foreign Trade Restricted
Just as the Mings stopped the voyagaes of Zheng He, they also restriced other trade. This was the first step in their attempts to limit outside contact.
Jan 1, 1500
Christian missionaries and European traders started coming into China in the 1500s. This is one of the main reasons the Ming officials decided to isolate China from the rest of the world, because they did not like their influence and wanted to preserve China's traditions.
Jan 1, 1500
In the 1500s, new crops from America reached China. These included sweet corn and sweet potatoes. These crops increased farm output, causing the population to boom.
Jan 1, 1550
In the late 1500, the powerful MIng Dynasty began to decline. With a few weak rulers, corruption increased as did taxes. Rebellions soon broke out and the Quing dynasty was formed.
Italian priest Matteo Ricci arrived in China and was accepted into the Ming court after learning the Chinese language and accepting many Chinese customs. Once in the court, he introduced European mathematics and science to China.
Quin dynasty formed
After rebellions broke out across the Ming dynasty, the people of the north named Manchu came into power. In 1644, they swept into Beijing and took the capital fo themselves.
Kangxi ruled Qing
One of the greatest emperors in Quin China, kangxi ruled from 1661 to 1736. He reduced taxes for peasants and expanded the empire. He supported arts, entertainment and education.
First Popular Chinese Novels Published
During the Ming and Qing dynastys, many literary advancements were made. By the 1700's, the first popuar Chinese novel "Dream of the Red Chamber" was published by Cao Zhan. It is considered China's greatest novel.
Qianlong Ruled Qing
Ruling China from 1736 to 1796, Kangxi grandson Qianlong brought the Qing dynasty to its height. He brought China to its largest size ever, the boom in population brought about by agricultural production, which also kept the economy high.
China population reaches 300 million
Under the rule of Qianlong, in the year 1750 Chinas population boom made it up to 300 milllion people; it just kept growing.
Geogrge Macartney came to China to trade
British official Lord George Macartney came to China to trade in1793. As the Chinese found the European goods that he brought inferior to their own, they sent him home. They also expected him to bow down which he refused to do, and was then sent away immediately.
Europeans tried to open China's closed doors
By the 1800s, China was very isolated from the rest of the world. The Europeans tried and tried again to open the doors to China. Though unsuccessful, their efforts would lead to the fall of the Qing dynasty.
Qing Dynasty Fell
The Qing dynasty was a long and succesful dynasty. Finally, in the year 1911, they would fall.