Chapter 16 The Last West and the New South 1865-1900

  • California Gold Rush

    Gold was found in California. Caused first flood of newcomers to the West. First of many quests for gold and silver in the West.
    -Pikes Peak, CO - 1859
    -Comstock Lode - 1859
  • Councils at Fort Laramie Atkinson

    Federal gov assigned the plains tribes reservations with definite boundaries. Most Plains tribes refused and followed the buffalo anway.
  • "Great American Desert"

    Mostly Native Americans in the west (Mississippi River-Pacific Coast); no white settlers; barren with little trees and such
  • Homestead Act 1862

    Encouraged farming on the Great Plains by offering 160 acres of public land free to any family that settled on it for a period of five years. Mainly for native-born and immigrant families.
  • Indian Wars 1864-70s

    Sand Creek - 1864 -CO militia killed a group of Cheyenne people
    Sioux War - 1866 -army under Fetterman was wiped out by Sioux
    Red River War - 1870s -against Comanche
    2nd Sioux War - 1870s -led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
    Little Big Horn - 1876 - before defeated Sioux took out Custers army
  • Native American Groups

    New Mexico and Arizona - Hopi and Zuni - corn and livestock
    Southwest - Navajo and Apache - hunters/gatherers/arts and crafts
    Washington and Oregon - Chinook and Shasta - fish and game
  • National Grange Movement

    Oliver H. Kelley made social and educational organization for farmers and their families.
    1870s - economic ventures and political action to defend members. Greatest strength was the Midwest.
    1873 - Granges in every state. Established cooperatives.
  • Barbed Wire

    Joseph Gilden created barbed wire. Helped farmers to fence in their lands on lumber-scarce lands. Brought an end to "open range" and allowed for farmers to claim their plots with fences.
  • Booker T. Washington

    Established an industrial and agricultural schoook at Tuskegee, Alabama which he built into the largest and best known industrial school in the nation. Taught southern blacks skilled trades, hard work, moderation, and economic self-help.
    Spoke in Atlanta in 1885.
    National Negro Business League - 1900 - support business owner and operated by blacks
  • Helen Hunt Jackson

    "A century of Dishonor" was written to show inustices done to Native Americans. Sympathy for them. Helped and suggested formal education and training to convert to Chritianity.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

    Most miners were immigrants. 2/3 of them were Chinese. Hostility to foreigners caused them to form a Miner's Tax of $20 a month of foreign-born miners. This act prohibited further immigration to the US by Chinese laborers.
  • Civil Rights Cases of 1883

    The Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens (railroads, hotels, businesses, etc. used by the public)
  • Wabash v. Illinois

    Court ruled that individual states could not regulate interstate commerce. It nullified many of the states regulations achieved by the Grangers.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Required railroads rates to be "reasonable and just." Set up first federal regulatory agency (Interstate Commerce Commision) which had the power to investigate and prosecute discriminatory practices.
  • Winter Blizzard and Drought 1885-1886

    Brought an end to the cattle fronteir (also overgrazing which destroyed the grass). Killed off 90% of the cattle. Also brought about the arrival of homesteaders.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Designed to break up tribal organizations, which left Natives from becoming civilized and law-abiding citizens. Divided tribal lands into 160 acres or less depending on family size and those who stayed for 25 years became civilized. FAILURE.
  • Oklahoma Territory

    Oklahoma was open for settlement. In 1890, US Census Bureau declared that entire frontier had been settled.
  • South Economy

    An integrated rail network was established throughout the South.
    By 1900, the South had 400 cotton mills employing almost 100,000 white workers. Number of acres planted in cotton more than doubled. Added to farmers problems because prices declined over 50%. Farmers became tenants.
  • Farmer's Southern Alliance

    By 1890, this alliance created over 1 million white members.
    Color Farmer's National Alliance was for blacks and had 250,000 members. Had they combined alliances, they could have been a political force but the upper class stood in their way.
  • National Alliance

    Organization of farmers that met in Ocala, Florida to address the problems of rural America. Supported 1) direct election of US senators 2) lower tariff rates 3) graduated income tax 4) new banking system regulated by fed gov.
  • Wounded Knee

    After Ghost Dance Movements (religious movement to try to resist US domination) and the arresting and killing of Sitting Bull, 200 Natives were gunned down by US. END to Indian Wars.
  • Frederick Jackson Turner's Thesis

    In reaction to the closing of the Oklahoma Teriitory, he wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History." Argued that frontier experience shaped American society and promoted independence. Broke down class distinctions which made social and political democracy. He was troubled by all of this.
  • International Migration Society

    Bishop Henry Turner for this society to help black emigrate to Africa for better conditions. Ida B. Wells campaigned against lynching and Jim Crow laws but she got death threats and destruction of her printing press.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Court upheld the Louisisana law requiring separate but equal accomodations for white and blacks on railroads. Argued that Louisiana did not violate the 14th am (equal protection of the laws). Jim Crow laws were developed after this which required segragated everything but stores and streets.
  • Case of 1898

    Court gave sanction to laws that upheld state's rights to use literacy tests to determine citizen's qualifications to vote. Decline in black voting.
  • Modernizing the West

    By the 1900s, the west was modernized. It had railroads, commercial cities, no more buffalo, etc.
  • AfterMath

    Indian Reorganization Act 1934 promoted the reeestablishment of tribal organization and culture. Part of FDR New Deal.