Chapter 12

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  • Fur Traders' Frontier

    Moutain Men were the first nonnative group to open the Far West. They traded with Native Americans and helped the settlers pass the mountains.
  • Texas Province

    In 1823, Mexico hoped to atrract settlers to farm the northern province of Texas. By 1830, Americans outnumbered Mexans in Texas three to one. Friction developed when Mexico outlawed slavery and and required everyone to becom Roman Catholics.
  • Revolt and Independence

    In 1834, general Antonio Lopez made himself dictator of Mexico. He insisted on forcing Texas to obey Mexican law. Sam Houston declared war and eventaully forced the General Santa Anna to sign a treaty of independence.
  • Farming Frontier

    Cheap land brought many to the west. Rural communities soon developed.
  • Boundary Dispute in Maine

    The boundry between Maine and Canadian province of New Brunswick was ill-defined. Soon rival groups of lumberjacks started a war known as the Aroostook War. The conflict was soon resolved when a treaty established the boundry between Maine and Canada.
  • Annexation

    The Republic of Texas applied to be a state, but was denied due to political debate and the threat of a costly war,
  • The Election of 1844

    Annexation was a hot topice during the election of 1844. In the Democratic party was split between Martin Van Buren, who opposed immediate annexation, and John C. Calhoun, who was proslavery and proannexation. The Democratic party chose a dark horse, James Polk. The Whig nominee was Henry Clay. Polk won in a close election.
  • Boundary Dispute in Oregon

    Oregan was claimed by Russia, Great Britain, and the United States.Protestant missionaries and farmers started to settle the Oregon Territory and this caused more farmers to come. By 1844, most American believed it was manifest destiny to control Oregon.
  • War With Mexico

    The annexation of Texas quickly created problems for Polk. He sent John Slidell to persuade Mexico accept Texas's border and to sell California. Mexico refused.
  • Annexing Texas and Dividing Oregon

    Outgoing president decided to annex Texas by getting a small majority of each house a resolution for annexation. Polk was left to deal with Mexico's reaction. Polk decided to settle for the southern half of Oregon instead of annexing all of it.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot proposed a bill that woulf forbid slavery in any new territories acquired from Mexico. It passed the House, but was defeated twice in the Senate.
  • Military Campaigns

    General Stephen Kearney took Santa Fe, the New Mexico territory, and sourthern California. Zachary Taylor's force drove into northern Mexico. General Winfield Scott invaded central Mexico.
  • Mexico City Falls

    General Winfield Scott captured Mexico City.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- Mexican Cessian

    Mexico would recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. The United States would take California and New Mexico. The United States would pay $15 million for the territories.
  • Mining Frontier

    Discovery of gold set off a rush of miners to the mountains of the West. Mining towns were short lived, but the population of towns grew a lot. Miners came from all over the world.
  • Overland Trails

    The settlers want to farm the fertile lands of California and Oregon. Hundreds of thousands followed trails left by the first settlers to the area. They usally began in St. Joseph or in Independece, Missouri. They went through the Great Plains and through the moutains. They faced Indians and threat of disease.
  • Railroads

    Railroads helped connect people to the East and it spurred growth. It united commercial intrests and provided cheap transportation.
  • Ostend Manifesto

    President Polk offered to buy Cuba, but Spain refused. President Pierce then secretly sent diplomats to Ostend, Belgium to negotiate the purchase of Cuba. News of the meeting leaked into the media and the deal was dropped.
  • Gadsden Purchase

    President Pierce bought land from Mexico from $10 million for a railroad. The land is present day New Mexico and Arizona.
  • Walker Expedition

    Southern adventurer William Walker and other southerns took over Nicaragua in order to develop a proslavery Central American government. A coalition of Central American countries invaded and defeated him. He was executed in 1960.
  • Panic of 1857

    The economic boom ended in 1857 with a financial panic. There were serious drops in prices and unemployment increased in northern states. The South was not affected due to high cotton prices.