First Gold Finding By James McBrienFirst official reports of the finding of gold in Australia by J McBrien. The information was suppressed.
Gold Finding Near HartlyGeologists P E Strzelecki and Rev W B Clarke find gold near Hartley.
Convict Transportation CeasesTransportation of convicts to NSW ceased.
First Gold Discovery In CaliforniaGold discovered in California (announced in December 1848).
Approval For The Mining Of Mineral Resources.Governor Fitzroy approached the Colonial Office, advocating a policy for the
exploitation of mineral resources. He requested a geologist, which led to the
appointment of Samuel Stutchbury. This gave approval for the mining of mineral
Californian Gold RushCalifornian gold rush. A great many Australians sailed for California.
Descovery Of Gold In Victoria By Edward HardgravesEdward Hargraves returned from California and washed gold at Summer Hill
Creek, Ophir. Although he showed little skill in discovering new fields, he
received recognition and financial rewards. The early rush to the NSW fields led
to a serious decline in the population in Victoria, so a reward was offered for the
discovery of gold in that region. Several claimants came forward, and by the end Edward Hargraves returned from California and washed gold at Summer Hill
Creek, Ophir. Although he showed
Australia PopoulatedProspectors started arriving from overseas. Approximately 100 000 arrived in
1852. Ships' crews deserted. Women were left while their husbands went in
search of gold. Australia's population went from 404 276 to 1 097 305 between
1850 and 1860. Small gold deposits were discovered in New Zealand.
Licence Fee ReducedThe licence fee in NSW was reduced to 10/- a month after near riots at Turon.
Victoria followed suit a few months later.
The Eureka StockadeDiscontent with the licensing system and lack of political rights came to a head in
the Eureka Stockade. An inquiry followed.
No More Licence Fee!In Victoria, the licence was replaced with the `Miner's Right', costing 1/- per
annum and carrying the right to vote. An export duty of 2s 6d per ounce was
placed on gold instead.
Smilar Changes To Licence FeeNSW adopted similar changes in licensing and voting to Victoria.
More Gold!A small deposit of gold was discovered north of Fitzroy River in north
Queensland. The few acres were soon exhausted by the arrivals. 5000-6000
footsore and penniless diggers had to be helped to return to Victoria or to the
inland NSW goldfields.
New Gold DiscoveryGold discovered in British Columbia (25 000 prospectors).
Chinese On The GoldfieldsAn influx of Chinese miners meant that by 1860 one fifth of all adult men in
Victoria were Chinese.
Lambing Flat's Attak On The ChineseLambing Flat riots, in which whites attacked Chinese miners.
Even More Gold!!!Workable gold discovered in New Zealand. Between 1861 and 1863, 64 000
people travelled to Otago from Australia, while only 8600 arrived from Britain.
New Gold Discovery In Coolgardie, WA.Gold discovered at Coolgardie, WA.
New Gold Field Discovery in Gympie, Queensland.A valuable gold field discovered in Gympie, Queensland.
Big Gold DiscoveryValuable deposits of very deep gold discovered on the Rand, South Africa. It took
money and machinery to extract this gold.
New Gold FindingGold discovered at Kalgoorlie, WA.
Gold discovered in AlaskaGold discovered in Alaska. The first goldfields were alluvial or surface goldfields, where the gold could be
washed or winnowed from the soil. The life of these goldfields was short. In
Victoria in 1852, it was estimated that the value of gold found by diggers was an
average of 324 oz per head. By 1856 it had fallen to 103 oz and it further
declined to 78 oz in 1865. In Victoria in 1856, there were 115 000 prospectors (or
End To The Australian Gold RushBy 1865, the number had declined to 80 000. Of the Australians
who went to the goldfields, many had hoped to gain a stake to establish a farm or
a business. Many found employment with the mining companies, operating
quartz-crushing machines or working on steam power generation. Others
returned home or moved to other fields in Australia, New Zealand or America. Sources:
Crowley, F A, Documentary History of Australia, Vol 2: Colonial Australia 1841-
1874, Nelson, 1980.