Bosses of the senate

APUSH Review 2020

  • Period: 1491 to

    Period 1/2

    10 Events Early exploration, European Colonization, 7 Year's War
  • 1492

    European Discovery of Americas

    European Discovery of Americas
    Christopher Columbus first landed at the Bahamas in 1492, thinking he had found a new route to India. He instead claimed the land (and the native people) for the crown of Spain. He and his crew brought with them many diseases, killing 55 million indigenous people from 1492 to 1600 (90% of the population).
  • Settlement Attempts at Roanoke

    Settlement Attempts at Roanoke
    Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to establish the first settlement in mainland America at Roanoke, in what is now North Carolina. This settlement fails due to lack of supplies, famine, and disease, and the entire colony is found deserted when Raleigh returns in 1590.
  • Jamestown

    Jamestown became the first English settlement in the Americas in 1607. Named after King James the First, the colony struggles in its first years but eventually flourishes under the leadership of John Smith.
  • Slavery in the Colonies

    Slavery in the Colonies
    Slavery begins in 1619 in the Chesapeake region of Virginia/Maryland. While it sprouted from indentured servitude, it spread all across the colonies, especially in the agricultural south. Slavery ended up becoming the main cause of the civil war and led to centuries of racism and discrimination in America.
  • Mayflower Expedition

    Mayflower Expedition
    Separatist Protestants migrate to the Americas aboard the Mayflower, seeking religious freedom and to establish a new order of the church. The pilgrims aboard the ship form the Mayflower Compact, which stated that their voyage was for the glory of God. It also established the first form of self-government in the Americas, with distinct rules for the inhabitants of Plymouth Rock to follow.
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

    Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first constitution in the English colonies of America. Establishing self-government, laws, and natural rights, it became the predecessor to other colonial and state constitutions, and even to the United States Constitution.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Nathaniel Bacon supports the backcountry people and hears their concerns/complaints, especially of the region being underrepresented. Bacon and his men march on Jamestown to protest for more representation of the backcountry people.
  • Stono Uprising

    Stono Uprising
    Enslaved people in Charleston rose against their enslavers in an attempt to flee to Florida for freedom and land. 25 white colonists and 35 to 50 enslaved peoples were killed.
  • French & Indian War (7 Years' War)

    French & Indian War (7 Years' War)
    French forces move into the Ohio valley and ally with Native Americans. The colonists revolt for "their land" and are back by Britain. As a result of the war, Britain takes over Canada and tightens its grip over the colonies.
  • End of Salutary Neglect

    End of Salutary Neglect
    Following the French and Indian War, Britain tightens its grip on the colonies, ending salutary neglect. This angers the colonies after generations of operating independently from Britain and eventually leads to the Revolution and American independence.
  • Period: to

    Period 3

    15 Events American Revolution, American Independence, Early Government
  • Sugar/Revenue Act of 1764

    Sugar/Revenue Act of 1764
    Implemented to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War, the Revenue Act of 1764 was the first of a long series of taxes against the colonies. Colonials mainly protested against taxation without representation and the inhumanity of Writs of Assistance.
  • Stamp Act of 1765

    Stamp Act of 1765
    Put a tax on all printed & paper goods (literally everything). This ended up being the final straw before major protests and boycotting, and shows a major uprising of the Sons of Liberty.
  • Gaspee Affair

    Gaspee Affair
    British officials become much more aggressive in enforcing taxes and acts of dominance over the colonies. In Rhode Island, a British customs ship called the Gaspee got stuck, so colonists took the opportunity to ransack and burn it. Shows that the colonists really hate Britain.
  • Tea Act of 1773

    Tea Act of 1773
    Britain implemented this tax in hopes to save the British East India Tea Company and monopolize the tea trade. This led to an extreme reaction from the colonists like protests and boycotts, including the Boston Tea Party.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    A Second Continental Congress met to discuss the outbreaks of fighting between Britain and the colonists. They discussed making the 'natives' the 14th colony, made Washington head of the Continental Army, and authorized an attack on Canada.
  • Initial Fights of Rebellion

    Initial Fights of Rebellion
    Initial fighting between the colonists and the British began at Lexington and Concord. They fought for about a year before the Declaration of Independence was officially created.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin in 1766 after the colonies were finally ready to fight against Britain. It declared unity in the colonies and even had resolutions come from outside of New England to show that all colonies were involved.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point of the war after the Continental Army had been struggling to win battles and was quickly losing soldiers and supplies. This battle was the first major win for the colonies and resulted in an alliance with the French.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    While the Articles of Confederation was the first constitution for America, it failed due to a lack of central government and major differences in state currency and policies. (Introduced in 1777, ratified in 1781)
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris officially ends the Revolutionary War, but fighting still persists for years after due to slow communication. It grants American Independence and all land east of the Mississippi River.
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    Land Ordinance of 1785
    One of the positives from the Articles, it divided the Old Northwest into 3-5 states. Public education was incorporated here and slavery was not allowed.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    Secretly held to overthrow the Articles of Confederation, the CC was held in Philadelphia in 1787. The delegates called for a Republican government system, a balance of power, a strong central executive government (with checks and balances).
  • 3/5ths Compromise

    3/5ths Compromise
    In a dispute over representation of slave states and taxing based on population, the 3/5ths Compromise arose. For slave states, 3 out of every 5 slaves would count as a part of the population.
  • Washington as First President

    Washington as First President
    George Washington was unanimously elected as president due to his popularity from serving as a strong general in the Revolutionary War. He established the Independent Cabinet and set the two-term precedent for the future presidencies.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Although it was viewed as too "pro-British" by the American public, the Jay Treaty finally got the British to leave the Northwest forts and established trade agreements with Britain. However, the US also agreed to pay off pre-revolutionary debts to Britain.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    After an undeclared naval war with France, US diplomats are supposed to meet with the French diplomat Talleyrand. Instead, France sends 3 'college interns' and demands both a bribe and a loan for them to stop attacking US ships.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 Part 1

    10 Events War of 1812, Westward Expansion, Native American conflicts
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Before leaving office, John Adams last-minute added new judicial positions and appoints Federalist judges before leaving office. However, James Madison never delivered the appointment letters to the new justices. The Supreme Court rules that Adams didn't have the authority to create new positions, which shows an early example of Judicial Review.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    France sells the entire Louisiana Territory to the US for $15 million (approx. 2 cents an acre). Lewis and Clarke are later sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore this new territory, which took them 3 years.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    Thomas Jefferson cuts off trade with the entire world due to trade issues with both Britain and France. Both US political parties do not like this and lead to Jefferson's unpopularity in the end.
  • Non Intercourse Act

    Non Intercourse Act
    The NIA undid the Embargo Act of 1807 and implemented specifically an embargo on Britain and France only in an attempt to declare neutrality between the two forces. Britain still attacks American ships, though.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The USA wants to go to war with Britain again due to the impressment of US soldiers/sailors, the Orders in Council, and the violation of neutrality trade agreements. Native Americans also became involved due to a conspiracy that Canada was supplying Tecumseh's confederacy with weapons.
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    During the War of 1812, Federalist Party members met and demanded that the central government must be weakened (congress & president) and that the 3/5 Compromise should be eliminated. This proved that the Federalists only wanted power for themselves and were becoming weaker with their political platform and beliefs.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    Ending the War of 1812, the Treaty of Ghent was agreed upon mainly because the war wasn't solving anything and Britain waned to trade with the US. The Treaty didn't change much except that there will be diplomatic meetings to resolve conflict instead of war.
  • Andrew Jackson's Invasion of Florida

    Andrew Jackson's Invasion of Florida
    General Andrew Jackson invades Fort Scott in Florida in an attempt to become governor of the state. He forcibly removed the governor, killed 2 British merchants, and hanged 2 Native American chiefs as a form of 'punishment' to the Native Americans. This caused problems and raised tensions for obvious reasons.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was a compromise between slave states and free states in Congress and admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The guiding principle of US foreign policy until the end of the century. Stated that there would be no new colonization of the western hemisphere, just expansion of the colonies that are already there. Also, any attempt at new colonization would be seen as a threat to the US. However, the US promised to stay out of the European internal issues.
  • The Erie Canal

    The Erie Canal
    The Erie Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Hudson River. It resulted in New York City becoming the largest trading hub of the US and began its notoriety for industrialism and business.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    John Q. Adams v. Andrew Jackson v. Henry Clay. No one wins the majority vote so it goes to the House. The House elects JQ Adams with Henry Clay as Secretary of State (this was seen as the "Corrupt Bargain").
  • Period: to

    Period 4 Part 2

    10 events Jacksonian Democracy, Reform movements, Slavery debates
  • Transcendentalist Movement

    Transcendentalist Movement
    Transcendentalism was the belief that immoral laws should be violated and focus on progressive movements like women's rights and abolition. It also focused on a connection between nature and humanities.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    Andrew Jackson is elected president and begins the road to Jacksonian Democracy. He is initially liked for having a 'common man' appeal but really, he's just racist.
  • Mormonism

    Joseph Smith establishes Mormonism and moves to Illinois to freely practice polygamy. He is killed in Illinois and is replaced by Brigham Young.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    William Henry Harrison is elected for being a "war hero" even though he killed countless innocent Native Americans. He dies a month into the presidency and Martin Van Buren takes over.
  • Prison/Mental Care Reform

    Dorothea Dix was most well known for her work in prison and mental institution reform. She even called on the NC Assembly and was allowed to build a mental hospital in Raleigh.
  • Period: to

    Period 5

    15 events
    Civil War, Slavery, and Political Party Divisions
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    Texas joins the Union in 1845 under James K. Polk's presidency. SC threatened to secede after an anti-slavery treaty was proposed for Texas.
  • Sewing Machines to America

    Sewing Machines to America
    Elias Howe and Isaac Singer fabricate sewing machines in the United States, speeding up the process of the textile industry. However, the first successful sewing machine was created by a Frenchman about 15 years earlier.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso would have banned slavery in the Mexican Cession states but wasn't passed. This was early signs of a civil war.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott held the Seneca Falls Convention to advocate for women's rights after they were denied entry to an all-male abolition conference.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Henry Clay created another compromise that finalized disputed about slavery in the Mexican cession states. California would come in as a free state.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    This extremely popular novel about slavery and abolition sold 300,000 copies originally. It spurred the question of the humanity of slavery.
  • Kansas/Nebraska Bill

    Divided unorganized western territory into Nebraska and Kansas. The new territories would decide if they were slave states based on popular sovereignty, which basically undermined the Missouri Compromise.
  • Sumner-Brooks Incident

    Preston Brooks beats the hell out of Charles Sumner with his cane after he makes a 'crimes against Kansas' speech. Shows earlier signs of tensions within congress.
  • Dredd Scott v. Sanford

    This landmark Supreme Court case brought up the question of free state vs. slave state rights and if property rights are national.
  • Panic of 1857

    Overproduction of goods and flooding the banks led to an economic panic in the north in 1857. However, the south remained stable which caused them to argue that their economic system is superior and that slavery is needed in an economy.
  • Election of 1860

    Abraham Lincoln is elected president over a fairly neutral platform and initially doesn't talk about slavery all too much. He also wins because the Democratic party cannot agree on a candidate so the votes are too spread out.
  • South Carolina Secession

    South Carolina secedes from the US in December of 1860 and is closely followed by other southern states. Basically the beginning of the civil war before fighting.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter was an island off of Charleston, SC that stationed Union troops. Lincoln sent food to the island so the Confederacy fires on Fort Sumter and eventually takes it (their first victory of the war).
  • Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act promised 160 acres of land in the west to anyone who would farm it. However, they were given only 5 years to make the land profitable or else they were in debt to the government.
  • Battle of Antietam

    The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day of war in American History and was basically a loss for both sides.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Abraham Lincoln gives a short speech that states that all enslaved peoples in the rebel states are legally freed, but this doesn't stop the south. It also states that enslaved people can join the Union Army, but slavery didn't truly stop until many decades after the war.
  • Technical End of the Civil War

    William T. Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant move north to surround Robert E. Lee at the Appomattox Courthouse and make him surrender. This is the technical end of the war but fighting doesn't really stop for a while due to a lack of communication and will to keep fighting on the south's part.
  • Period: to

    Period 6

    12 events
    Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, Nativism
  • Lincoln's Assassination

    Abraham Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth in a theater. The motive was mainly anger over slavery and southern rights, as well as tensions between the political parties. Andrew Johnson (VP) takes over as president for the rest of the term.
  • Congressional Reconstruction

    Congress begins its internal reconstruction following the Civil War. It extends the Freedmen's Bureau and passes the Civil War Amendments (13,14,15).
  • Military/Southern Reconstruction

    The south was treated as occupied territory under military administration. This worked for the time that the military was there and made life way better for African Americans, but this immediately stopped when the military left.
  • Election of 1868

    Ulysses S. Grant (R) is elected president. The 15th amendment is also passed to increase the number of Republican voters (African Americans) and win the election.
  • Sharecropping & Tenant Farming

    Sharecropping and tenant farming rose as a 'legal' replacement for slavery in the south. It was advertised as an easy way to make money for newly freed African Americans who didn't have many opportunities for other work fields, but the workers were actually treated horribly and got trapped in an agreement.
  • Credit Mobiler Scandal

    The company that was in charge of making the TCR created a new company called Credit Mobilier and used federal funds to buy their own stock and drive up its own stock prices.
  • Panic of 1873

    In this panic, the government doesn't exchange gold for money and prevents a rush on the banks. Brings up the debate of how much money should be circulated.
  • Compromise of 1877

    This compromise decided that Rutherford B. Hayes would be president and that Reconstruction would be over. This was an effort to make both political parties happy.
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877

    In this massive railroad strike, President Hayes ended up calling the National Guard to suppress the labor union. It led to violence and approx. 100 people were killed.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    National panic led to extreme nativism and racism towards immigrants, especially those from Asia. The Chinese Exclusion Act stated that no Chinese immigrants could come to the USA.
  • Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act "re-organized" Native Americans into new reserves that were decided by white people. In reality, it led to the forced assimilation of Native tribes and countless lost cultures and languages.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    While it was designed to break up monopolies, the Sherman Antitrust Act initially only broke up labor unions. It wasn't used for its actual purpose until many years later.
  • Pullman Strike

    A huge monopolized company called Pullman cut the wages of its railroad workers but didn't lower their rent. The workers went on strike and called on Eugene Debs to represent them, but their plan is eventually ruined by railroad companies. However, this strike is a predecessor to all future ones.
  • Capture of Puerto Rico

    The US captures Puerto Rico from Spain in 1898. It eventually becomes a US territory.
  • Period: to

    Period 7 Part 1

    15 events The conservation movement, WWI, switch of the political party platforms, progressivism
  • Platt Amendment

    Although the US promised Cuba its independence after the Spanish-American War, they proposed the Platt Amendment. It stated that the US would have a military base on Cuba and that the US could interfere in Cuba's business in order to protect US interests.
  • American Medical Association

    The first in a series of the development of professional organizations, the AMA finally required training and certification before being allowed to become a healthcare professional.
  • Election of 1904

    Teddy Roosevelt (R) v. Alton Parker (D).
    Roosevelt's platform was the Square Deal, which called for the conservation of nature, consumer protection, and control of corporations.
  • Hepburn Act

    The Hepburn Act finally established that the ICC could place price ceilings on railroad companies and tickets. Basically strengthened the ICC after it hadn't been used for years.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    A predecessor to the FDA, this act stated that labels on consumables had to be accurate about what was inside the bottle. This is one part of TR's plan to protect the people.
  • Antiquities Act

    As a part of TR's conservation efforts, this act was passed. It stated that any federal land can be turned into a National Park or a National Monument.
  • Election of 1908

    William Howard Taft wins overwhelmingly but the election still shows the Solid South. However, he wasn't as unanimously popular as Teddy Roosevelt was since he wasn't as forward with any of his policies and wanted Congress to take charge of everything.
  • Mann-Elkins Act

    The Mann-Elkins Act allowed the ICC to regulate telephones and telegraphs.
  • Federal Reserve Act of 1913

    The FRA (under Woodrow Wilson) fixed monopolized banking. It also finally controls circulation and interest rates for banks, making for a more stable economy (or so they thought).
  • Underwood-Simmons Tariff

    This tariff was a landmark one as it reduced the national tariff from 40% to 27%. It also increased the income tax, making it a permanent tax.
  • WWI Officially Declared in Europe

    Following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in June of 1914, WWI was declared in Europe a month later. Called "the war to end all wars" (lol), it had two sides: the Allies and the Central Powers.
  • Federal Farm Loan Act

    This act offered low-interest loans to farmers as a part of Wilson's social welfare legislation. This is an example of the US finally acknowledging the economic struggle of farmers and the discrimination of banking.
  • National Defense Act

    The NDA doubles the US army to 200,000. The US hasn't officially joined the Allies yet, but this is in preparation for the war.
  • Workers Compensation Act

    Worker's Comp stated that federal workers would be compensated for their medical bills if they were hurt on the job. This is eventually spread to almost all jobs over time.
  • US Declares War

    The US finally declared it was joining WWI in April of 1917 after the Zimmerman Telegram, the resumption of submarine warfare from Germany, and the Russian Revolution.
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    These now-unconstitutional acts stated that you couldn't publicly say anything negative about the United States and that you can't avoid or interfere with a draft.
  • Period: to

    Period 7 Part 2

    15 events
    WWII, The Great Depression, European Involvement, Nuclear Warfare
  • Wilson's 14 Points

    Woodrow Wilson's 14 points called for a League of Nations, freedom of the seas, and independence of people groups. European leaders laughed it off and thought that Wilson was foolish for believing such things would work.
  • Armistice Day

    The fighting finally ends on this day with a cease-fire agreement between the Allies and Germany. The name is changed to Veteran's Day in 1954 following WWII.
  • Philippine Self-Government

    By the 1920s, the Philippines had created its own constitution and held elections. It also formed a military and began educating the public on self-governing.
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    This treaty officially ended WWI and made Germany take the blame for the war. It also formed the League of Nations, but the United States wasn't a part of this treaty due to Wilson having a stroke and being unable to sign it.
  • Emergency Quota Act

    Following the Red Scare, the American public became nativist and very paranoid of immigrants. This led to the creation of this act which used the 1910 immigration census as incorrect statistics and allowed only 3% of that number to enter the US from each country recorded each year.
  • Eugenics Program

    In North Carolina, the Eugenics program was active from 1929 to 1977. It was an attempt to 'purify' America and in NC, 7,500 people were sterilized with 5,000 of those being African American.
  • Black Tuesday

    On Black Tuesday, the stock market crashed for some reason idk. Then there was no demand for stocks because everyone sold theirs.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation

    This was part of Hoover's plan to repair America from the Great Depression. This corporation supported "too big to fail" businesses but again, there wasn't enough money to save the economy.
  • National Housing Act

    As a part of FDR's New Deal, the NHA provided loans to first-time homeowners. However, redlining was very much involved and discriminated against non-white communities.
  • Indian Reorganization Act

    This act rightfully undid the Dawes Act and returned the reservation land to tribal ownership rather than individual ownership. This act acknowledged tribal sovereignty but was a bit too late since the Dawes Act had already caused irreversible damage.
  • Lend Lease Act

    States that the US will give materials (not loan or debt) to anyone who fights against bad guys. The USSR receives $11 million in aid after Hitler invades in 1941.
  • Atlantic Charter

    In a meeting between the US, UK, and USSR, it was stated in this charter that countries should have the right to choose their own form of government. It also called for Roosevelt's four freedoms; freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from want and fear.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    After FDR froze all Japanese assets in the US, Japanese air forces attacked Pearl Harbor, HI. The vast majority of the US Pacific Fleet was destroyed and more than 2,300 Americans were killed.
  • D-Day

    In arguably the hugest battle of WWII, D-Day was the largest amphibian front storming in history. 2.8 million soldiers were involved and over 209,000 people were killed, but it led to the eventual liberation of Paris on August 25th.