Timeline created by andrewcberger
In Music
  • 1534

    Henry VIII renounces papal authority

    Henry VIII renounces papal authority
    Disappointed with the inability of the Queen, Catherine of Aragon, to bear a son, and infatuated with the young Anne Boleyn, King Henry VIII petitioned Rome to annul the marriage. The failure to obtain the annulment led to the Church of England disavowing the authority of the Pope.
  • 1547

    King Edward VI

    Edward VI ascended the throne at age nine and ruled until his death by illness six years later. During his reign, Protestanism was established as the official religion, but this was to be overturned by his successor, his half-sister Mary. Upon Mary's death, five years later, Elizabeth I returned England to Protestantism.
  • 1553

    Queen Mary

    Mary, half-sister of Edward VI, ascends the throne upon his death from illness.Catholicism is restored as the official religion.
  • Slavery introduced to the British colonies

    The origins of the songs that came to be known as Negro Spirituals are deeply connected to the history of slavery in what would become the United States.
  • Shakespeare's Sonnets published

    Shakespeare's Sonnets published
    The first 126 of Shakespeare's 154 Sonnets are addressed to a young man, the identity of whom is uncertain.
  • Mission Dolores founded

    Mission Dolores founded
    Mission Dolores, the first Spanish settlement in the Bay Area, was founded by Lieutenant José Joaquin Moraga and Padre Francisco Palóu, a companion of Junípero Serra, and dedicated to St. Francis of Assisi.
  • "Jerusalem" by William Blake published

    The origin of this short but famous poem was a preface to an epic book by Blake, "Milton: A Poem in Two Books." It's meaning is obscure. While it may seem to espouse a natiionalism rooted in Christian values,it is often interpreted to be anti-theistic, reflecting the religious ambivalence of much of Blake's work.
  • "Slave Songs of the United States" published

    Negro Spirituals, alongside bluegrass, ragtime, blues,jazz, musical theatre, and, most recently, rap, are among the most original and important authentically American contributions to music.The richness, depth of feeling, and scope of the texts and melodies which originated in oral tradition have made them the basis of a substantial choral literature, and beloved by singers worldwide.
  • First performance by Fisk Jubilee Singers

    First performance by Fisk Jubilee Singers
    The Fisk Jubilee Singers were organized at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, to raise money for the historically black college. First presenting concerts along the route of the Underground Railroad, the ensemble was one of the earliest proponents of Negro Spirituals, and continue to tour nationally and internationally today.
  • John Rutter born

    British composer John Rutter is one of the most prolific and widely performed contemporary composers of sacred music, particularly choral music.
  • San Francisco Boys Chorus Founded

    San Francisco Boys Chorus Founded
    San Francisco Boys Chorus celebrates its 70th Anniversary in 2018 as the oldest boys chorus and choral training program in the United States.
  • René Eespere born

    Estonian composer René Eespere is particularly celebrated for his choral works. His "Glorificatio" can be heard in performance by Golden Gate Men's Chorus on their most recent release "Out of the Deep."
  • Vytautas Miškinis born

    Lithuanian composer Vytautas Miškinis wrote "I Will Lift Up Mine Eyes," a setting of Psalm 121 for the Golden Gate Men's Chorus in 2013. It can be heard on GGMC's most recent recording, "Out of the Deep."
  • David Conte born

    Choral works of American composer David Conte, who chairs the Composition Department at San Francisco Conservatory of Music, have been performed frequently over the years by Golden Gate Men's Chorus. His "Everyone Sang," was written for GGMC in 2012.
  • Golden Gate Men's Chorus founded

    Golden Gate Men's Chorus founded
    Golden Gate Men's Chorus was formed by Dick Kramer in 1982 as the Dick Kramer Gay Men's Chorale. Mr. Kramer, one of the founding fathers of the American gay choral movement, envisioned a small men's ensemble reminiscent of university men's choruses of 19th-century Europe. Reorganized as the Golden Gate Men's Chorus in 1988, the GGMC continues to present high quality performances of men's choral music.
  • Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union
    The Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have de facto independence restored after 45 years.They join NATO in 2004.
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    John Sheppard

    The English John Sheppard lived and worked mainly during the reign of Edward VI, a period marked by economic challenges and social unrest.
  • Period:

    Reign of Elizabeth I

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    J.S. Bach

    Although not represented on the "Anthem" concerts, German composer Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the greatest composers of sacred music in Western history.
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    Robert Schumann

    German composer Robert Schumann was one of the most important figures of the early Romantic period in music. His "Verzweifle Nicht" was a five-movement work first performed with organ on July 4, 1850, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of St. Pauli, the men's choral society at the University of Leipzig. Schumann later arranged the work for mixed chorus and orchestra.
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    William H. Monk

    London-born William H. Monk, was best known as an arranger and organist, and eventually became choirmaster at King's College in London. He composed a number of well-known hymns, including "Abide With Me."
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    Camille Saint-Saens

    Parisian composer Camille Saint-Saens was a prolific but not particularly ground-breaking composer of the late Romantic period. He is perhaps most widely known for his Opera "Samson et Dalila." "Saltarelle" is one of a number of works Saint-Saens wrote as salon pieces for a cappella men's voices.
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    Hubert Parry

    British composer Hubert Parry was an important figure in late Romantic period English music, but is largely forgotten other than for his setting of Blake's "Jerusalem." He served as head of the Royal College of Music in London where he taught a number of important composers including Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst.
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    Irving Berlin

    Irving Berlin emigrated from Russia with his family to Manhattan's Lower East Side, then primarily a community of recent immigrants, many Jewish. Berlin is widely considered to be one of the great figures in American popular music. Many other influential popular singers and writers of the time - Eddie Cantor, Al Jolson, George and Ira Gershwin - also were from Jewish immigrant families and grew up in the same New York neighborhood.
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    Leonard Bernstein

    Leonard Bernstein was the most ubiquitous and possibly the most influential American classical musician for fifty years until his death in 1990. He is known for theatrical works, most famously "West Side Story," which opened on Broadway in 1957. He wrote a number of works inspired by religious themes including Symphony No. 1, "Jeremiah," Symphony No. 3, "Kaddish," Chichester Pslams (to Hebrew texts,) and "Mass."
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    Einojuhani Rautavaara

    Einojuhani Rautavaara is generally recognized as the most important Finnish composer after Jean Sibelius. He was prolific, writing for all ensembles, including many works for men's voices. A number of later works were inspired by a childhood nightmare of an enveloping angel, and grappled with angels as ambigious, terrifying apparitions.
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    Veljo Tormis

    Estonian composer Veljo Tormis, is considered one of the most important composers of choral music in the late-20th to early-21st centuries. His "Tombtuul" was last performed by Golden Gate Men's Chorus in 2012 at the quadriennial GALA festival in Denver.
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    Moses Hogan

    Moses Hogan was a pianist, composer, arranger, conductor, and champion of Negro spirituals. He is credited with more than 50 choral arrangements of spirituals and other sacred hymns, which continued to be performed around the world.