24. Native Americans, relations with English colonies, 17th-18th centuries

  • Jamestown is founded by the London Company

    May 24, Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers founded the colony of Jamestown on the mouth of the James River in Virginia. They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over. The colony was near the large Indian village of Werowocomoco, home of Pocahontas, the daughter Powhatan, an Algonquin chief.
  • A revolt between the Native Americans and the settlers

    Some 200 Native American warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Virginia. Two settlers were killed and ten seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ three moored ships.
  • Hostilities ended with the Native Americans

    Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown. Hostilities with the Native Americans ended as ambassadors said their emperor, Powhatan, had commanded local chiefs to live in peace with the English.
  • Pocahontas saves Smith from having his head smashed at Powhatanís direction

    While exploring, John Smith falls into the hands of Chief Powhatan, the Powhattan tribe's chief. The Powhattan princess, Pocahontas, at around age 10 or 11, saves Captain John Smith from death by her tribe by throwing herself in front of him. Later on, John Smith wrote that Pocahontas saved the colony of Jamestown.
  • Pocahontas captured by settlers

    The colonists at Jamestown kidnapped Pocahontas and held for ransom to force her father to free some English hostages and to return some stolen tools.
  • The Marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas

    Pocahontas married English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe in Virginia. Having converted to Christianity, she went by the name Lady Rebecca. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians.
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    Epidemic invades the Wampanoag confederacy in MA

    An epidemic, possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. This helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
  • The first American Thanksgiving

    The first American Thanksgiving was held in MA's Plymouth colony in 1621 to give thanks for a bountiful harvest. 51 Pilgrims served codfish, sea bass and turkeys while their 90 Wampanoag guests contributed venison to the feast. Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford issued a thanksgiving proclamation. During the three-day October thanksgiving the Pilgrims feasted on wild turkey and venison with their Native American guests. American Indians introduced cranberries to the white settlers.
  • Massacre in Jamestown resulting in a 22 year war

    The Powhattan Confederacy massacred 350 colonists in Virginia. On Good Friday more than 300 colonists in and around Jamestown, VA, were massacred by the Powhattans. The massacre was led by the Powhattan chief Opechancanough and began a costly 22-year war against the English. Opechancanough hoped that killing one forth of Virginia’s colonists would put an end to the European threat. The opposite result occured; English survivors regrouped and pushed the Powhattans far into the interior.
  • The future Ellis Island is purchased from Native Americans

    New Amsterdam's governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
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    The New England Confederation

    (No exact dates specifiied)
    In the 1840s, the various New England colonies were constantly faced with the threat of the attack from Native Americans. Therefore in 1643, 4 New England colonies (Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven) formed a militray alliance known as the New England Confederation, which lasted until 1684.
  • A Peace Treaty is Created in Virginia

    A treaty with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from "enemies," but only on the reservation in King William County. The peace treaty unraveled the powerful confederation of local Indian tribes and large amounts of land were ceded to English settlers. (it only gave a year...no exact month or date)
  • First Protestant Church Assembly for Native Americans

    The 1st Protestant church assembly for Native Americans took place in Massachusetts.
  • The Onset of King Phillip's War

    King Philip’s War began when Indians--retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English--massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
  • The official declaration of war on the Wampanoag

    Colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock, Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
  • Native Americans Attack Lancaster

    In the midst of King Philip’s War, Narragansett and Nipmuck Native Americans raided Lancaster, Massachusettes. Over 35 villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive.
  • Sudbury was attacked by Native Americans.

    Sudbury, Massachusetts, was attacked by INative Americans.
  • Metacom killed by English soldiers

    Native American chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists.
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    William Penn's "Holy Experiment"

    William Penn wanted to test ideas he had developed based on his Quaker beliefs. One of the ideas was unusal for the time: Penn wanted the Native Americans to be treated fairly and to not cheat them when purchasing their land
    (no specific dates specified)
  • Friendship treaty with the Lenni Lenape Native Americans.

    William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Native Americans in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken."
  • English forces attack Apalachees in Florida.

    English forces attacked Apalachee Indians in Florida driving them into slavery and exile. Some 800 Apalachee fled west to French-held Mobile. (no exact month or date; just a year)
  • Tuscarora Indian War Begins

    The Tuscarora Indian War began with a massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment that included the enslaving of Indian children.
  • First recorded scalping of Native Americans is committed in New Hampshire.

    New Hampshire militiamen partook in the first recorded scalping of Native Americans by whites in North America. 10 sleeping Indians were scalped by whites for scalp bounty.
  • The Start of the French and Indian War

    George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War, also called the 7 Years' War.
  • Teedyuscung's rebellion along the Delaware River

    Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
  • The first Native American Reservataion is Created

    New Jersey Legislature formed the 1st Native American reservation.
  • The First Use of Biological Weapons

    British forces, under orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst, distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon. (No month or day specified; only year)
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    The Native Americans were angered by the growing westward movement of European settlers and by the British refusal to offer gifts as the French had done. Chief Pontiac led a major attack against colonial settlements on the western frontier in response to this.
    (no exact date specified)
  • Native Americans guareenteed rights to land and self-government

    George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
  • Johnson signs a treaty with Iroquois about land settlement

    William Johnson, the northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iroquois Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio rivers for future settlement
  • Articles of Confederation approved by the Continental Congress

    The Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation, precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois later inspired the suffragist movement.
  • First Treaty Between the US and Native American Tribes is signed

    Sep 17, The 1st treaty between the US and Indian tribes was signed at Fort Pitt.
  • US Trade and Intercourse Act Passed

    The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval. (no month or day specified; just a year)
  • Chief Little Turtle leads most powerful force of Native Amerians who defeated Americans

    Gen Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of Native Americans. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, IN.
  • Native American resistance is ended in the NorthwestTerritory

    American General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Native American resistance in the area.
  • Treaty of Canandaigua signed

    The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington. The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.
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    New York and enters several treaties and agreements with the Oneida Native Americans

    New York state and local governments entered into 26 treaties and several purchase agreements with the Oneida Native Americans to acquire all but 32 of 270,000 acres. Almost none of the transactions were approved by Congress as required by a 1790 law. (no months or days were given; just years)