2017 Jordan Stuart Dalat World History

Timeline created by jstuart
In History
  • 4,000 BCE

    3.2-Mesopotamia, Sumerians; the society shaped by religion

    Sumerian people believed in polytheism, which is the belief of many gods. They had priests, for religious ceremonies. They also had a social hierarchy with kings, priests, merchants and artisans, farmers and laborers, as well as slaves, in that order.
  • 4,000 BCE

    3.3-Mesopotamia, Sumerian mathematics, arts and sciences

    In mathematics and sciences, they created a mathematical system based on 60, as well as medicines. They also created the plow, wheel, and an early clock. Art forms included carved stone seals, ziggurat temples, and jewelry to name a few.
  • 3,300 BCE

    4.4-Egyptian achievements

    Egyptians developed a writing system of hieroglyphics which they wrote on papyrus and the Rosetta Stone.
  • 3,200 BCE

    4.1-Egyptian geography span

    Egypt was called "the gift of the Nile" because it was thriving along the Nile. The Nile flooded annually, causing rich silt for farming to coat the land. The Nile is the longest river in the world and is roughly 4000 miles long.
  • 3,000 BCE

    3.1-Mesopotamians; hunter - gatherers, agriculture, food surplus,

    Early Mesopotamians were hunter - gatherers; some hunted, others gathered. Next came agriculture which led to irrigation and a food surplus. This led to division of labor.
  • 3,000 BCE

    4.1-Ancient Egypt

    Menes was the first pharaoh and ruler to unify Egypt in 3100 BC and he created the first dynasty.
  • 2,700 BCE

    4.2-Egypt, religion

    The Egyptians believed in many gods and the afterlife. Since they believed in the afterlife, the elite and all ranks above them were buried as well preserved mummies in large tombs called "pyramids". These tombs were built by slaves and farmers.
  • 2,300 BCE

    5.1-India's first main cities

    Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were the main cities at the time and Mohenjo Daro had right- angled streets as well as a simple indoor plumbing system.
  • 2,300 BCE

    5.2-India, Caste system

    Castes, the Indian ranking and social system, came into play as Hinduism developed. The first were the Brahmin priests, then Kshatriyas, rulers and warriors, then Vaisyas, farmers, artisans and traders, then Sudras, workers and servants.
  • 2,200 BCE

    4.2-Egypt, Old kingdom

    Khufu was the most famous pharaoh; pharoahs were at the top of the Egyptian society. Right behind the pharaoh was the elite and below them the scribes and artisans. Below the artisans were the slaves.
  • 2,200 BCE

    6.1 Xia and Shang dynasties

    The Xia dynasty had many tales told about it, though not even scholars know if they are true.( 2200 BC )The Shang dynasty created one of the first written languages. ( 1500s BC )
  • 2,000 BCE

    3.2-The Rise of Sumer

    The Sumerians started conquering the Fertile Crescent and started to create the first city- states because of emperor Sargon
  • 2,000 BCE

    5.5-India, Sanskrit

    Sanskrit was the main language under the Aryans and was used to write many religious writings, like the famous Bhagavad Gita.
  • 2,000 BCE

    5.5-India, Sciences and Math

    The Aryans were some of the first to use inoculation and Hindu-Arabic numerals, as well as advances in metallurgy.
  • 2,000 BCE

    8.1 the Minoans, Mycenaeans, and the Dark Ages

    The Minoans were great traders and sailors. Their civilization was probably ended by a giant volcanic eruption near Crete. The Mycenaeans focused on trade and defense. During the Dark Ages, Greece developed cities and colonies in distant lands.
  • 1,800 BCE

    3.3-Mesopotamia, Sumerian Technology

    Cuneiform, the world's first system of writing after pictographs that weren't considered writing. This allowed job openings for scribes who copied writings and wrote original pieces like poems called "epics" which told stories about heroes.
  • 1,750 BCE

    4.3-Egypt's Middle Kingdom

    Wealth and power decreased and nobles struggled to hold power. The kingdom was finally reunited by Mentuhotep II. Though, near the end of this kingdom the pharaoh could not hold power.
  • 1,700 BCE

    3.4-Mesopotamia, The Babylonians conquer Mesopotamia

    Hammarabi was a good war king that had a series of 282 laws for everything in daily life. It was called Hammurabi's code.
  • 1,550 BCE

    4.3-Egypt's New Kingdom

    Chaos struck again as the Middle Kingdom ended and this time Ahmose reunited Egypt. Leaders made an empire to prevent invasion. As Queen Hatshepsut took power, new trade routes and opportunities opened. Ramses the great took power and formed a large army.
  • 1,250 BCE

    5.2-India, Hinduism

    Originally called Brahmism, the Hindu focus is on Brahman and it's many deities that reflect it's personality. Religious writings called Vedas were big parts of the religion and had thoughts written about them called Vedic texts.
  • 1,100 BCE

    6.2 Zhou dynasty

    The Zhou dynasty had kings who claimed to have the "Mandate of Heaven" and others believed as much also.
  • -850 BCE

    4.5-Kush and Egypt's conquests

    Due to Kush's rise in wealth and military power, Egypt conquered Kush to keep them from invading. After that, Egypt lost power and after regaining their strength, the Kushites took over Egypt. 1500-850 BC
  • -800 BCE

    8.3-Greece, mythology and literature

    In Ancient Greece, people wanted to explain why certain things happened since they did not have modern science. To explain these things, they made up many tales about gods and goddesses. Later literature included heroes, fables and songs.
  • -800 BCE

    10.1- The Rise of Rome

    Legend has it, that Aeneas, a Trojan hero, fled from his home land to the mountainous Italyand fought Italians with the, also italian, Latins. From Aeneas’s descendants came two twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, who were sailed in a basket by an evil king. They were then rescued by a she wolf and raised by her until they built the city of Rome. Before the building, Romulus got angry with and therefore killed Remus, then named Rome after himself.
  • -600 BCE

    8.2-Greece, Athenian government

    The first rulers of Greece were tyrants and aristocrats. These were oligarchies. The people of Greece were no longer happy with their government and this gave birth to democracy. A man named Cleisthenes was the first man to come up with democracy.
  • -551 BCE

    6.2 Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism

    Confucius was a man who lived during the Zhou dynasty and helped it stop the warring states period with his ideas of peace and education( 551 - 479 BC ). Daoism was all about the right path (About 500 BC) and legalism was about strict laws.
  • -550 BCE

    9.1 - The Persians

    In 550 BC, Cyrus the Great founded the Persian Empire and as he conquered other peoples, he allowed them to keep their own customs. When he died in 529 BC, his son, Cambyses took the throne until he died and Darius I took over, killing all his rivals until the Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great took over The Persians Empire in 334 BC.
  • -550 BCE

    9.2 - Sparta and Athens

    Spartans trained for military since the age of 7 and it was very vigorous. The woman had many rights compared to those in other parts of Greece. Athenian boys were taught some military training, but mainly were taught to be good students and were taught maths, sciences, and philosophy. Athenian women had little to no rights at all.
  • -520 BCE

    5.3-India, Buddhism

    Buddhism revolves around the Buddha or the former Prince Siddhartha Gautama who was enlightened after meditating under a tree for seven weeks. They believe they must follow the four noble truths and the eight fold path.
  • -500 BCE

    13.1- West Africa- Gold and Salt

    Iron was used to make advanced weapons and salt and gold were used for trade.
  • -500 BCE

    13.4- West Africa- Griots

    Griots were storytellers that preserved the history of West Africa. This was done orally. This came with the risk of changing details because there was no written language of West Africans.
  • -400 BCE

    10.2 - Rome’s Government

    After a series of kings, the Romans created a new government, called a republic. This consisted of consuls, magistrates, senators, and Assemblies and Tribunes. These groups had to use checks and balances to make sure that no one got too much power.
  • -320 BCE

    5.4-India, Mauryan empire

    Candragupta Maurya gained power over northern India and used several spies and 600,000 soldiers as well as many war elephants. Asoka was also a great military ruler, but gave it up to become a Buddhist monk.
  • -320 BCE

    9.3 - Alexander the Great

    Philip II was the king of Macedonia until his death in 336 BC due to a murdering. After he died, his 20-year-old son, Alexander took over and conquered most of the ancient world. After spreading Hellenistic culture, he died in Babylon in 323 BC and three of his generals split the Empire which soon fell completely.
  • -300 BCE

    9.4 - Greek philosophy and arts

    The Greeks excelled in arts, especially realistically detailed statues. They were also the founders of as well as big fans of philosophy with ten founder being Socrates. They built a magnificent temple called the Parthenon as well. They also made mathematical advances with Euclid the great geometry teacher and Hippocrates a great doctor.
  • -221 BCE

    6.3 Qin dynasty

    The first Chinese empire was during the Qin dynasty under the reign of the first emperor, Shi Haungdi who enforced legalism and was responsible for the terra cotta soldiers.
  • -207 BCE

    6.5 Han interactions

    During the Han dynasty, the Silk Road developed as the invention and production of silk did. This valuable fabric brought wealth to China. This trade route also lead to the spread of Buddhism to China.
  • -206 BCE

    6.4 the Han dynasty

    Confucianism and strong family bonds were enforced. The Hans developed a version of a seismograph as well as acupuncture and many works of art, many of which were figure paintings.
  • -200 BCE

    10.3 - The Late Republic

    By circa 200 BC, the Romans had conquered most all of Italy. After these successes, they were absorbed into a series of battles called the Punic Wars. These lasted for a while and eventually led to a battle against the Carthaginian general, , named Hannibal. They did eventually defeat him and Carthage, however.
  • -170 BCE

    4.5-Kush, the city of Meroe

    In one of their main cities, the Kushites had many temples and other buildings.
  • -44 BCE

    11.1 - From Republic to Empire

    In 58 BC, a general named Julius Caesar took power over Rome and started to conquer other lands. He also reduced the Senates' power which resulted with them murdering him. His adopted son, Octavian and his former assistant, Marc Antony, tried to avenge Caesars’s death . Marc Antony offends Octavian and commits suicide. Octavian later became ruler and is called Augustus.
  • -30 BCE

    11.2 - Rome and Christianity

    Originally, Rome was tolerant of the Jews. Then the Jews were seen as a political threat. Emperor Hadrian later banned certain Jewish rituals. This made Jews angry and they tried to cause a revolt. It failed and as a result the Romans burned Jerusalem . Christianity developed due to Jesus’s birth and resurrection. The Christians were killed brutally until Constantine became a Christian and ended the persecution.
  • 200

    11.3 - The End of the Empire

    Outside threats caused the emperors to give up land because it was to hard to protect. An emperor named Diocletian split the Empire into an East and West half. The Western half fell in the four fifties, where as the Eastern half fell almost a thousand years later in 1453.
  • 200

    15.1- Japan - Early Japan

    The first people to live in Japan were the Ainu. No historians know exactly where they came from. Next there were clans. Each clan had a clan leader.
  • 320

    5.4-India, the Gupta empire

    Candra Gupta I was the emperor of the Gupta empire. through his son, Sumadra Gupta, and the rest of the rulers -including Candra- of the Gupta empire, Hinduism was enforced and the empire had almost all of the Ganges River valley conquered. The Gupta empire was at it's highest point under the rule of Candra Gupta II.
  • 500

    16.1- Central America- The Maya inventions

    The Mayans made a calendar that was more accurate than European calendars. The also made observatories and temple-pyramids.
  • 500

    17.1- Europe- Geography

    There are many mountains in Europe. There are also many seas and oceans surrounding this peninsula. The south is sunny and warm, and the northwest is colder.
  • 500

    17.2- Europe - the Middle Ages begin with Christianity

    The Middle Ages began in 500 and is sometimes called the medieval times or dark ages. During this time, many missionaries from countries once part of the Roman Empire set out to gain converts.
  • 570

    12.1 - The roots of Islam

    Muhammad was a boy who traveled in a caravan in his early years. When he was age 25, he got married and started to stand up for the poor. He is now known by Muslims as a prophet of Allah, or God. He was said to have been. Confronted by an angel and the things that were said now make up the Qur’ an.
  • 570

    12.2 - Islamic Beleifs and practices

    There are two main branches of Islamic beliefs; the Sunnah and the Shariah. Though they have many differences, they both try to follow the five pillars. The five pillars are the statement, five daily prayers, alms giving, fasting during Ramadan, and traveling to Mecca at least once if possible.
  • 589

    14.1-China reunified

    In AD 589, Yang Jian unified China. This began the Sui dynasty that started the age of Buddhism. Then was the Tang Dynasty that was the golden age of China. Then it was the Song Dynasty that had many agricultural advances.
  • 794

    15.2- Japanese Art

    The Japanese used many art forms. Their elaborate clothes and beautiful paintings were only a few forms of art. They also had the first novel by lady Murasaki Shikibo called The Tale Of Genji. They had great performing arts and Chinese architecture. They also had Noh which was essentially musicals.
  • 800

    13.2-Ghana- Trade

    Trade impacted Ghana greatly, through silent bartering of Gold and salt. Because of the increased trade Ghana was able to make money from taxes and expand its borders.
  • 800

    17.3- European Feudalism

    Feudalism was a system that has kings, nobles, knights, and peasants. The nobles were vassals to the king. The knights were vassals to nobles, and peasants did all the hard work.
  • 800

    17.4- European Feudal societies - Knights vs. Samurai

    Knights and Samurai both had horses, flags, armor, and weapons. The knights had thin , metal armor and the Samurai had thick, woven armor. They both also had a code of honor and held great respect.
  • 918

    14.2- China- Tang and Song achievements

    During the Tang Dynasty, there were inventions like woodblock printing, painting, gunpowder,and the compass. The Song Dynasty had achievements like irrigation techniques, porcelain,ports, fast growing rice, and paper money.
  • 1000

    18.1- Europe- The Pope vs. the King

    In the mid-1000s, the pope, Pope Gregory VII, thought that he should have the right to choose the Bishops, not the king. The king, Henry IV, disagreed, causing a series of debates between the two.
  • 1096

    18.2- Europe- The Crusades

    The Christians of Europe decided to fight back and gain the Holy Land, Palestine, from the Muslims in response to an attack. This led to a series of crusades. These crusades merely ended in many deaths and the mixing of cultures and trade between the Muslims and the Christians.
  • 1100

    14.3- China- Confucianism

    Confucianism was a philosophy that Confucius started. It teaches ethics and proper behavior. Neo-Confucianism was a new look at Confucianism. It focused on things more spiritually.
  • 1100

    15.3- Japan- Military Society

    Up until the 1100s, Emperors ruled Japan. Then, the Shogun- or military leaders- took over Japan, keeping the Emperor a figurehead. Under the Shogun was the Daimyo and Samurai. Then under the The mass population; the peasants.
  • 1200

    12.3 - Islamic empires

    The Ottoman Empire started in the mid-1200s. Under the rule of Mehmed II, they conquered the Byzantine Empire. The later sultan, Suleyman I, got the Empire to its height. The next Empire was the Safavid Empire. Under this Empire, Islam split into the Shi’a and the Sunni. The next Empire was the Mughal which gained much more territory for India.
  • 1200

    18.3- Europe- Monks and Friars

    The monks and friars of Europe led very different lives. Monks lived in isolation in monasteries, away from public people. Friars lived and worked among the common public.
  • 1206

    14.4- China- Yuan and Ming dynasties

    The Mongols took power over China in 1206. The leader was Ghengis Khan. He ruled ruthlessly and terrorized many people. He gained a large Empire and kept it by fear. When he died, his grandson, Kublai Khan, took power. He held an even larger Empire, until he died and the Empire lasted until 1644.
  • 1215

    18.4- Europe- The Magna Carta

    In 1215, Europe was fed up with the cruel kings’ rule. They forced him to sign the Magna Carta, saying that even he must follow the laws and be fair and just.
  • 1312

    13.3- Mali- Mansa Musa

    Mansa Musa was the most famous ruler of Mali. He was so rich that when he went on the Hajj, he caused much inflation. He built schools and stood for education. After his death, his son ruined the empire.
  • 1327

    16.2- Tenochtitlan - Aztec religion

    Aztec religion was a major part of their life. They would regularly have wars just to get prisoners to sacrifice to their gods. They sacrificed about 10000 people a year.
  • 1455

    19.2-Europe- The Printing Press

    The printing press was invented during the Renaissance by Johann Gutenberg. It was used for printing many books so that many people could read books. It used movable type to print the pages.
  • 1480

    18.5- Spain - Spanish Inquisition

    The Spanish Inquisition was a group of priests who went around Spain and accused heretics, Muslims, and Jews. They had cruel punishments and about 2,000 people were sentenced to death in Spain.
  • 1492

    20.2- Spain and the Americas- Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus was one of the best-known discoverers. He is credited for discovering the Americas, even though the entire time, he believed that the native Americans were Indians.
  • 1500

    16.3- Peru - Incan achievements

    The Incas were able to cut stone so perfectly that they did not need cement. They also made beautiful textiles and gold and silver works.
  • 1500

    20.3-The Americas- The Colombian Exchange

    Europe and America exchanged many goods at the time of the Colombian exchange. Europe gave America things like horses, coffee, and wheat, whereas rhe Americas gave things like peanuts, pumpkins, and turkey.
  • 1517

    19.3- Europe- The Reformation

    In 1517, Martin Luther nailed the 95 theses to the door of the church. It accused the church of all their corrupt ways and educated people. It said that “indulgences” were useless and included many more accurate statements.
  • 1531

    19.1-Famous Italian Works

    There were many influential people and works during the Italian Renaissance. Two amazing authors at the time were Dante Alighieri and Niccolo Machiavelli. Two of the most famous artists, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, were also from this time period.
  • 12.4 - Cultural Achievements

    In astronomy, the Muslims improved the Astrolabe. In geography, newer maps. In philosophy came Sufism. In medicine, new schools. In literature, famous poets and poetry. And finally, in arts, architecture and calligraphy.
  • 20.1- Europe-Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei, an Italian astronomer was very influential. He created a primitive telescope and thermometer. He discovered Jupiter’s moons and was put on house arrest by the church for believing Copernican theory.
  • 21.2- Europe- Philosophers

    John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were European philosophers who believed that their current governments were incorrect.
  • 21.1- Europe- Religions’ Role in the Enlightenment

    During the Enlightenment, many people started to rebel against religious intolerance. Voltaire was one French philosopher who was tired of religious intolerance. He was a humanist.
  • 21.3- Americas- Revolution

    By 1775, British colonies in America were fed up with British rule. They revolted, fought, and were independent by 1776. This was a revolution that was inspired by, then later inspired other revolutions such as the French Revolution.
  • USA, Jordan Stuart

    I was born.
  • Chapter 3-Modern day Mesopotamian connection

    Similar to Hammurabi's code, people still must follow laws today or suffer the consequences for every crime.
  • Chapter 4-Modern day Egypt and Kush

    Egypt still has some standing pyramids and other monuments. Kush is now the land of Nubia and also has about 50 standing pyramids of their own shape and size.
  • Chapter 5-Modern day Indian connection

    People still follow Hinduism and Buddhism strongly.
  • Chapter 6- Modern day Mandarin Chinese language

    Even today the Shang period writing is used in Mandarin with some changes.
  • Chapter 8- Modern day government

    Since the creation of democrac in Ancient Greece, many countries have become democratic.
  • Chapter 9 - Modern day connection

    People who wish to become doctors today still must say the Hippocrtatic Oath.
  • Chapter 10 - Modern day connection

    In the United States today,the government is a republic, similar to Rome
  • Chapter 11 Modern Day

    Like in Ancient Rome, Jews are still persecuted today.
  • Modern day Chapter 12

    People still follow Islamic beleifs today.
  • Chapter 13- West Africa- Modern day connection

    Music from early Mali is considered blues and jazz today.
  • Chapter 14 China Modern day connection

    Paper money that was used during the Song Dynasty inspired much of our money today.
  • Chapter 15 - Modern day connection

    Just like in 1192, there are figureheads who “rule” countries today. Such as the queen of England.
  • Chapter 16- Modern Day Connection

    Many tourists still visit Machu Picchu, a city built by the Incas.
  • Chapter 17- Modern Day Connection

    Just like the Middle Ages, there are still many Christian missionaries all over the world.
  • Chapter 18- Europe- Modern Day Connection

    The Magna Carta, signed in 1215, has influenced many government systems today.
  • Chapter 19- Europe - Modern Day Connection

    The works and legacy of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci still live on today. Their works are regularly viewed.
  • Chapter 20- America- Modern Day Connection

    America, now a very European-influenced country, was originally European-ized in 1492, when Columbus came.
  • Chapter 21- America- the American revolution

    The American Revolution has had obvious effects on America, creating the democratic republic we have today.
  • Period:
    10,000 BCE
    -500 BCE

    Chapter 3-Early Fertile Crescent People

    Mesopotamians, Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Hittites and Kassites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Phoenicians.
  • Period:
    10,000 BCE

    Chapter 4-Egypt and Kush

    Ancient Egypt - 10000 BC - 2700 BC
    Old Kingdom - 2700 BC - 2200 BC
    Middle Kingdom - 2050 BC - 1750 BC
    New Kingdom - 1550 BC - 1050 BC
    Ancient Kush - 3500 BC - 300 AD
  • Period:
    2,200 BCE

    Ch. 6, Ancient China

    Xia dynasty - 2200 BC
    Shang dynasty- 1500 BC
    Zhou dynasty- 1050 - 400 BC
    Qin dynasty- 221 - 206 BC
    Han dynasty- 206 BC - AD 220
  • Period:
    2,000 BCE

    Chapter 5-Ancient India

    2000 BC - 320 BC- Aryans ruled
    320 BC - 185 BC- Mauryan empire
    320 AD - mid- 500s AD- Gupta empire
  • Period:
    2,000 BCE
    -500 BCE

    Chapter 8 Ancient Greece

    Minoans- 2000-1600 BC
    Mycenaeans- 1600s -1200s BC
    Dark age- 1200s-500 BC
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE

    Chapter 16- The Early Americas

    The Maya-1000 BC-1500s AD
    The Aztecs- 1325 AD- 1521 AD
    The Incas- 1400s AD- 1537 AD
  • Period:
    -800 BCE
    -78 BCE

    Chapter 10 - The Romans part 1

    Kings’ rule - 753 BC - 509 BC
    Republic rule - 509 - show in another chapter
    Dictators’ rule - c. 500 - c. 450 BC
  • Period:
    -559 BCE
    -60 BCE

    Chapter 9 - The Greek World

    The Persians - 556 - 486 BC
    The Athenians - 900 - 404 BC
    The Spartans - 900 - 323 BC
    Alexander the Great’s Empire - 334 - 323 BC
  • Period:
    -500 BCE

    Chapter 13- West Africa

    Soninke- 500 BC - 300 AD
    Ghana- 300 AD - 1230s AD
    Mali- 1230s AD- 1500 AD
    Songhai- 1400 AD - 1591 AD
    Great Zimbabwe- 1100 AD - 1500 AD
  • Period:
    -58 BCE

    Chapter 11 - Rome and Christianity

    Pax Romana - 58 BC - AD 180s
    Eastern Roman Empire -late 200s - 1453
    Western Roman Empire- late 200s - 450s
  • Period:

    Chapter 15- Ancient Japan

    Ainu- c. 10-1700 AD
    Clans- c. 400 - c. 1100s
    Emperors- 500s- 1192
    Shogun- 1192 - 1800
  • Period:

    Chapter 17- Europe- The Early Middle Ages

    Middle Ages- 500-1500
    Charlemagne’s rule- 771- 814
    Feudal system- 800s-1300s
  • Period:

    Chapter 12 - The Islamic World

    The Ottoman Empire- 1200s - 1800s
    The. Safavid Empire- 1501- 1700s
    The Mughal Empire- 1526 - 1600s
  • Period:

    Chapter 14- China

    Sui- AD 589-618
    Tang - AD 618-c.918
    Ming- 1368- 1644
  • Period:

    Chapter 18- The Later Middle Ages

    The Crusades- 1096-1201
    The Magna Carta- 1215
    The Hundred Years’ War- 1328- 1453
    The Black Death- 1347-1351
  • Period:

    Chapter 19-The Renaissance and Reformation

    The Italian Renaissance- 1270-1650
    Marco Polo’s journey- 1271-1291
    The Renaissance Beyond Italy-1300s-1650
    The Reformation-1517
  • Period:

    Chapter 20- Europe and More- Science and Exploration

    Scientific revolution- 1540- 1700
    Exploration- 1487-1580
  • Period: to

    Chapter 21- The World-Enlightenment

    Voltaire- 1694-1778
    John Locke- 1632-1704
    Charles-Louis Montesquieu-1689-1755
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau-1712-1778
    American Revolution-1775-1776
    French Revolution-1789-1794