• Edwards and the Great Awakening

    Jonathan Edwards, an intellectual pastor, ignited the Awakening in Northampton, Massachusetts. Edwards proclaimed the folly of believing in salvation through good works and affirmed the need for complete dependence in God's grace. He painted the landscapes of Hell and his preaching style was llearned and closelyreasoned.
  • The First Amendment's Beginning

    John Peter Zenger was accused of writing lies about the royal governor. He was sent to trial but was found not guilty. This shaped the present day First Amendment of the freedom of the press.
  • War of Jenkins's Ear

    British captain Jenkins encountered Spanish revenue authorities who sliced off an ear of Jenkins and ordered him to send it back to his King. The War of Jenkins's Ear broke out between the British and Spaniards in the southern colonies and later spread to Europe and became known as King George's War.
  • King George's War

    The War of Jenkins's Ear merged with the War of Austrian Succession in England to become known as King George's War. France allied itself with Spain against the British but the powerful British fleet defeated the two European powers.
  • Princeton College Founded

    The Great Awakening led to the founding of "new light" centers of higher learnings. Princeton was the first of these "new lights" established and was followed by Rutgers, Brown, and Dartmouth.
  • Seven Years War

    The French and Indian War began in the Americas and spread to Europe where it became known as the Seven Years War. Britian and Prussia faced France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. After the bloodiest battle in Germany, British and Prussia were victorious and won the Americas from France.
  • French and Indian War

    The American colonists and the British worked together to defeat the French colonists and their allies, the Indians. After seven years of battle and wars occuring in Eurpe, the french were unable to supply troops to the Americas. So,the British found themselves victorious.
  • Albany Congress Loyalty

    The British summoned the intercolonial congress to Albany, New York. The imediated summoning occured with the purpose of how to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British in the spreading wars. They brded the Indians with wagonloads of gifts, mostly guns, which continued the loyality of the Indians.
  • Braddock's Defeat

    General Braddock and his aide, George Washington, set out to capture Fort Duquesne. Braddock encountered a small French and Indian army and found himself to be wounded. With Braddock wounded, the French and Indian army easily defeated this British fleet and took a wider warpath along the whole frontier.
  • Pitt Leads Britain

    WIlliam Pitt became the foremost leader in the London Government. He wisely decided on soft-pedal assults and became victorious through these decisions. He dispatched powerful expeditions which lead to the first significant British victory of the entire war.
  • Battle of Quebec

    James Wolfe sent a detachment up a poorly guarded part of the rocky eminence protecting Quebec. The following morning, the British and Frenched faced off on the Plains of Abraham. The French were defeated and Quebec surrendered.
  • Peace Settlement at Paris

    When Montreal fell, the French flag had fluttered in Canada for the last time. This treaty was established and the French power was thrown completely off the continent of North America. The British and Spanish were now left to rule the Americas.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    With the French completely out of America, the London Government established the Proclamation of 1763. This proclamation prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians in order to work out Indian problems fairly.
  • Pontiac's Uprising

    Ottawa chief Pontiac led several tribes into the Ohio country to drive out the British. His warriors besieged Detroit and overran all
    three British posts west of the Appalachians.
  • Rutgers College Founded

    Rutgers College was originally called Queen's College and was established in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  • Paine's Common Sense

    Thomas Paine created a phamplet, Common Sense, which urged the colonists to just fitght rather than wait and hope for peace.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Once the Second Continental Congress chose the path of independe and the battles ended, Thomas Jefferson wrote this document to show the rights and complaints the colonist had to the King.
  • Battle of Trenton

    In the middle of the night, George Washington lead his troops across the Delaware River and arrived to Trenton in the morning. His troops surprised the British soldiers and captured them all without suffering a loss.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    General Burgoyne surrendered his troops at the Battle of Saratoga. This was a major turning point in the war as it showed foreign nations that the colonists had a chance too defeat the Britsh. This was essential as it brought French aid.
  • Washington Defeated

    Worried about the british in New York, Washington moved his troops to Philadelphia. There, he was defeated in two minor battles at Brandywine Creek and Germantown.
  • Valley Forge

    With winter upon Washinton, he decided to retire his army for winter at Valley Forge. Valley Forge was upon a strong, hilly position yet the men found themselves with many struggles.
  • Steuben to the Help

    Once Washington's troops retired to Valley Forge, Baron von Steuben arrived to train his men.
  • French American Alliance

    With hopes of peace agreement, three delegates from the second Continental Congress headed to France in hopes of an alliance. WIth wanting revenge on Britain, the French accepted the agreement and the Franco-American Alliance was established.
  • Battle of Monmouth

    General Washington attacked a large group of red coats at Monmouth. Many died from sunstrokes and the British escaped to New York.
  • Clark Conquers the West

    George Rogers Clark set out from the Ohio region and headed down the Mississippi River. Along the way he was victorious through many battles. Without Clark, the Americans wouldn't have claimed the Mississippi regions and the west from the British.
  • Catherine the Great

    Catherine the Great established Armed Neutrality which brought together all European nations againts Britain.
  • The French Arrive

    Comte de Rochambeau arrived to New Port, Rhode Island. Along with him were six thousand trained troops and supplies.
  • Cornwallis Surrenders

    After fighting many battles, Cornwallis took his troops to Yorktown. In persuit, Washington surrounded Cornwallis from all ways, including water. Cornwallis in hopes of being saved by the British navy, had to surrended when help never arrived. This marked an end to the war.
  • Greene Conquers the South

    Nathaniel Greene was a very successful officer. Using the retreat tactic, he wore down the British army as they constantly persued him. Greene is held responsible for clearing the British out of Gerogia and the Carolinas.
  • Treaty of Paris

    After Cornwallis finally surrendered his troops at Yorktown, the American revolution had finally come to an end. The Americans signed the Treaty of Paris chich declared their independence and gave them much land.
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    Land Ordinance of 1785
    The Land Ordinance of 1785 described how the new Ohio lands would be split up. This document stated that the lands would be split into 6mi x 6mi townships. These townships would be broken up into 1mi x 1mi sections with the profits from the 16th section reserved for schools.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    Digruntled over difficulties involving farmland mortgages, Daniel Shay led a group of his friends across parts of Massachusetts, revolting. He was arrested, convicted, sentenced to death, and pardoned. This showed the US government was weak.
  • Annapolis Convention

    Annapolis Convention
    A meeting was called upon in Annapolis, Maryland to strengthen the Articles. Only five of the nine states attended, not enough for a meeting. Alexander Hamilton called for another meeting at another date.
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 stated the process to which new states would be made. The first step was to write a constitution and send it to Congress for approval once the population reached 60,000. If Congress would approve, then the territoy would become a state.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    Having the first meeting gone bad, 55 delegates and 12 of the 13 states showed up to Philadelphia for the Constitutional Convention. Herre, The Article of the Confederation was scraped and the Constitution was written.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The French Revolution began with the French people displeased with the monarch and democracy. It then turned into a world affair as all European nations came into the picture. The revolution exceded its limits with the Reign of Terror where thousands of nobles were massacred.
  • Bill of Rights Adopted

    Bill of Rights Adopted
    The Democratic Republicans of the south were very displeased with the new Constitution. They believed it was mainly composed of the Federalist and the northerners ideas. They also belive the document took away many rights of the people and the states. The Bill of Rights was then adopted to please the southerners and replace some rights of the people.
  • The First National Bank

    The First National Bank
    As Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton devised a four part plane for for the economy. In this financial system, Hamilton's main part was the establishment of a National Bank to help stabilize the economy and raise revenue.
  • Washinton's Neutrality Proclamation

    Washinton's Neutrality Proclamation
    When the French Revolution became a world affair with the French against the British, the United States was called upon for help. The only problem was that they were called upon by both sides. With half the United states wanting to side with Britain and the other half with the French, Washington declared in his Neutrality Proclamation that the United States will remain neutral.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    One of the four parts to Hamilton's Financial System was an excise tax on whiskey. This furiated some citizens on the frontiers of Pennsylvania. These citizens revolted but the revolt was quickly put down when Washington sent 13,000 soldiers to the location.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Not wanting war, Washington sent John Jay to England to smooth things over with the British. Alexander Hamilton had already told Britain of Jay's term so he was behind when they began negotiations. As a result, the United States found themselves in a horrible agreement where the only positive outcome was no war.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    After serving two terms, George Washington decided to retire. When doing so, Washington left three key tips for America in his Farewell Address. These tips were to avoid all permanent alliances, avoid political parties, and no one man should serve more than two terms at Presidency.
  • Convention of 1800

    Convention of 1800
    With having more difficulties, Adams sent new delegates to France to discuss terms with Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon had different plans when he called the Convetion of 1800. Here, Napoleon ended the Franco-American Alliance.
  • Louisiana Purchse

    Louisiana Purchse
    Thomas Jefferson sent three delegates to France to purchase land around New Orleans. Napoleon, needing money because of problems in France, decided to sell not only their desired location but also the rest of the western land known as the Louisiana Territory. The United States more than doubled its size with this purchase.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    With the recent Louisiana purchase, the United States more than doubled its size. With all this new land, the only thing to do is explore it. Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on an expedition to explore and specifically map out the new territory.
  • Tariff of 1816

    Tariff of 1816
    This tariff was imposed to boost foreign good prices and therefore make American goods look cheaper. However, this left many angry as prices were still very high for the American goods.
  • Erie Canal Construction Begins

    Erie Canal Construction Begins
    The Erie Canal was headed by New York's govorner: Dewitt Clinton. Using state money, the Erie Canal was said to link the western rivers with the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Big Ditch

    The Big Ditch
    The Erie Canal was completed after eight years of work. The canal was a great impact to the Americas as it effectively stole trade from the Mississippi River.
  • First Railroad

    First Railroad
    The first tracks of the railroad were laid in the Americas. Though very dangerous, the tracks were mostly laid in the north and didn't impact society until the late 60's.
  • Mechanical Reaper

    Mechanical Reaper
    The mechanical reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick. This greatly impacted the farming world as harvesting grains became a quick and miuch easier task.
  • Steel Plow

    Steel Plow
    The steel plow was invented by John Deere. This invention allowed farmers to cut into the fertile and hard soils much easier and quicker.
  • Working Hours

    Working Hours
    After witnessing the terrible conditions in the factories, President Martin Van Buren set a 10 - hour work day for federal employees.
  • Labor Unions

    Labor Unions
    In the court case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, Massachusetts declared labor unions legal in work factories.
  • Building of Clipper Ships

    Building of Clipper Ships
    America began building clipper ships which were long, sleek, and very fast. They hauled cargo to foreign nations and the speed cut back on much time.
  • The Telegraph

    The Telegraph
    Samuel Morse changed the world with his invention of the telegraph. The telegraph allowed for instantaneous communication over a long distance.
  • Working Women

    Working Women
    Women first found themselves with jobs in factories. In Lowell, Massachusetts women flooded the textile factories for jobs. In addition, Catherine Beecher began pushing women to enter teaching.
  • The Potatoe Famine

    The Potatoe Famine
    Hardship struck Ireland with the Potatoe Famine. The results of the hardhsip left millions dead and many fleeing to the Americas for a better life.
  • The Sewing Machine

    The Sewing Machine
    Elias Howard and Isaac Singer invented the sewing machine. This helped to manufacture clothing and materials quickly.
  • Know-Nothing Party

    Know-Nothing Party
    This secret society emerged and was originally known as the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". This secret society was known to answer with: "I know nothing".
  • Cumberland Road

    Cumberland Road
    The Cumberland Road became the first national road of America. This road linked Maryland to Illinois.
  • Kansas Nebraska Act Dispute

    Kansas Nebraska Act Dispute
    Originlly the Kansas Nebraska Act stated that Kansas would be slave and Nebraska would be free. However, northerners began moving into Kansas to make it a free state which made southerners angry.
  • The New England Emigrant Aid Company

    The New England Emigrant Aid Company
    WIth conflict rising in Kansas over the slavery issue, the New England Emigrant Aid Company equipped many norhterns with Beecher Bibles and sent them to Kansas to fight.
  • Pottawatomie Creek Massacre

    Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
    As a abolitionist, John Brown arrive to the Pottawatomie Creek where he brutally massacred five pro-slavery men.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    After much vilence and bloodshed in Kansas from disputes over the slavery issue, Kansas became known as "Bleeding Kansas".
  • Lecompton Constitution

    Lecompton Constitution
    The pro-slavery government of Kansas had the slavery issue on their hands in Kansas. So, they implanted the Lecompton Constitution which stated that Kansas would have a vote on slavery but no matter what, those ensalved in Kansas shall stay enslaved.
  • Brooks Sumner Incident

    Brooks Sumner Incident
    Charles Sumner, an abolitionist, criticized the South Carolina's congressman: Preston Brooks. After being criticized, Brooks took his cane and whacked Sumner brutally. Brooks became a hero for the South.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    Dred Scott was a slave who was moved to a free state where he then claimed he should be free. The case was taken to court and the decision stated that he was a slave so he had no rights to sue.
  • Panic of 1857

    Panic of 1857
    Another panic began spreading throughout the Americas but was not that particularly bad. The causes for the panic was: inflation caused by California gold, over-production of land, and over speculation. The north was hit the hardest with this panic due to its factories and industries.
  • Tariif of 1857

    Tariif of 1857
    Originally, the tariif rate reduced to only 20% becuase of the southerners' compalnts. However, with the panic spreading throughout, the Tariff of 1857 brought the tariff rate back up to its original number.
  • The Impending Crisis of the South

    The Impending Crisis of the South
    Hilton Helper published "The Impending Crisis in the South" in favor of the white man. In this story, he claimes the non-slave owning whites were the ones strongly being hurt by all the events.
  • Lincoln Douglas Debates

    Lincoln Douglas Debates
    For the Illinois Senate Race, the Republicans selected Abraham Lincoln and the Democrats selected Senator Stephen Douglas. Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven debates but Douglas came out on top in the end.
  • Freeport Doctrine

    Freeport Doctrine
    In the series of debates, Lincoln questioned Douglas about the slavery issue and if he would side with the people or the Supreme Court. He replied with his "Freeport Doctrine" which stated that the people have the ultimate power to decide on the issue of slavery.
  • Harpers Ferry Incident

    Harpers Ferry Incident
    As a wild abolitionist, John Brown planned to take the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in hopes to lead a slave revolt. However, he was stopped by Robert E. Lee and sentenced to death.
  • Crittenden Compromise

    Crittenden Compromise
    The final attempt for compromise came when James Crittenden proposed the Crittenden Compromise. This compromise proposed that the old Missouri Compromise line be extended. However, President Lincoln never supported the compromise and the compromise failed.
  • Secession of the Southern States

    Secession of the Southern States
    South Carolina claimed they would secede from the union should Lincoln win the presidency. Lincoln won the presidency and South Carolina would soon secede in December. Six other states soon followed within the next six weeks.