14.4 Timeline (Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia)

  • Indian Troops Return Home

    Indian Troops Return Home
    The Indian troops that were sent to war under the name of Britain returned home. They were promised self-government, but they recieved nothing.
  • British Pass the Rowlatt Acts

    British Pass the Rowlatt Acts
    After radical nationalists protested in a violent way, the British passed a new law called the Rowlatt Acts. These laws allowed the government to hold protesters in jail with out a trial with a maximum of 2 years.
  • Amritsar Massacre

    Amritsar Massacre
    When the Rowlatt Acts were passed, 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar to protest by fasting and praying. Later on, a British Commander thought that these protestors were breaking the Rowlatt Acts. So, he ordered his soldiers to fire at the protesters. Approximately 400 Indian people died and nearly 1,200 were injured by the soldiers. This event was later on known as the Amritsar Massacre.
  • Congress Party Promotes Civil Disobedience

    Congress Party Promotes Civil Disobedience
    Gandhi and the whole Congress Party started to promote civil disobedience. Civil disobedience is act of refusing law in a non violet way to achieve independence. Gandhi did this to weaken the British's power and economy.
  • Boycotts

    On Dec. 26, Gandhi held a conference to speak about his plans to stop buying British goods, paying British taxes, and voting. One of the most successful boycotts that resulted from the conference was the one on British cloths. Instead of buying cloth from the British, Gandhi and many other Indians started to spin their own cloth. This caused the sales of cloth of the British to decline in a great way.
  • Boycotts (2nd Part)

    Boycotts (2nd Part)
    The Indian Boycotts and the strikes made the British struggle on getting money. This caused them to struggle on key things like keeping trains running and keeping jails from overflowing.
  • Republic of Turkey

    Republic of Turkey
    After the Ottoman Empire's Sultan was uncapable of defeating the Greeks who threatened to conquer them. Mustafa Kemal had to lead the Ottoman Empire into defeating the Greeks. After this event, the Turkish people (Part of the Ottoman Empire) overthrew the Sultan and made Turkey a Republic. They then elected Kemal as the first President of Turkey.
  • Salt March

    Salt March
    The Salt March was a peaceful protest against the Salt Acts. Gandhi and many more Indians marched 240 miles to the seacoast where they started to make their own salt using the salt from the sea. Then, some protestors marched to a British salt factory. They wanted to shut the factory down, but they were greeted by Police Officers who beat them down with steel clubs.
  • Oil Brings Economic Changes

    Oil Brings Economic Changes
    European and American companies discovered huge sums of oil in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. This made foreign businesses invest money to get oil out of these areas. Geologists then later found out that in these areas there was around 2/3 of the world's known oil. This discoveries then brought along huge amounts of money, economical changes, and development.
  • Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud Unifies Arabia

    Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud Unifies Arabia
    In 1932 Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud made great efforts to unify Arabia. He started by changing Arabia's name to Saudi Arabia, he also kept true to Islamic traditions. He then started to modernize Saudi Arabia without interfering with religiously unacceptable areas.
  • Reza Changes Persia's Name to Iran

    Reza Changes Persia's Name to Iran
    After WWI, the British tried to conquer all of Persia. This caused a nationalistic revolt in Persia. Then, in 1921 a Persian officer seized power and in 1925 he got rid of the Shah that was ruling at the time. After this, Reza Shah Pahlavi, the new Persian ruler, modernized Persia and in 1935 he changed Persia's name to Iran.
  • Britain Passes the Government of India Act

    Britain Passes the Government of India Act
    After Gandhi and his protestors followed their civil disobedience for some years, the British Parliment then decided to pass the Government of India Act. This Act gave the Indians a local self-government and limited democratic elections. But, this still didn't grant the Indians complete independence. This act then increased fighting among Hindus and Muslims, since they had different opinions on India's future.