Iran history cyrus darius

Iran Historical Moments

  • BC to AD

    BC to AD
    In the years before AD, Iran already had a long history of warfare. The first was the Predynastic Era in which the Agricultural Revolution occured. Then was the Achaemenian Dynasty, in which Cyrus the Great established the Persian Empire. Darius the Great also ruled during this time and the Persian Empire was the dominant world power for two centuries. Alexander invaded and killed many Persians. After his death was the Parthian Dynasty. This Dynasty brought Iran into the AD era.
  • 224 AD Sasanian Dynasty

    224 AD Sasanian Dynasty
    The Sasanian Dynasty began and was started by Ardeshir I. During this Dynasty, Iran had much educational and religious growth.
  • 570 AD Prophet Mohammad

    570 AD Prophet Mohammad
    The Prophet Mohammad was born. In 622 AD he migrated from Mecca to Medina in fear of prosecution. This marks the birth of Islamic Civilization and the start of all Islamic calenders. Mohammad died in 632 AD and his texts were gathered to create the Islamic holy book - The Koran.
  • 642 AD Arab Caliphate

    642 AD Arab Caliphate
    The Arab Caliphate began after the Persians defeated their long time enemies, the Roman/Byzantine Empires. Persians quickly began to follow the Islamic faith because of its new ideas of equality and unity.
  • 661 AD Imam Ali

    661 AD Imam Ali
    Imam Ali, the fourth and the last of Prophet Mohhamed's descendants was assinated. This started the tension between the Sunni and Shi'ite sects within Islam.
  • 696 AD Arabic

    696 AD Arabic
    Arabic became the official language if the Islamic world.
  • 750 AD The Abbasid Caliphate

    750 AD The Abbasid Caliphate
    The Abbasid Caliphate began in 750 AD. This Caliphate featured the development of a significant government that featured many aspects of Persian history. The government had a vizier (minister) and a divan (similar to a treasury). The Caliphate ended in 1258 AD and was the pinnacle of Islamic power and glory.
  • 820 AD Persian Golden Age

    820 AD Persian Golden Age
    In 820 AD the Arab rule began to slowly diminish and in their place Persian goverments began to form. Persia became a world center for art, literature, and science. Many great Persian poets, scientists, and mathematicians made advances in their fields.
  • 1220 AD Gengis Khan

    1220 AD Gengis Khan
    In 1220 AD Gengkis Khan invaded the Persian Empire with sever brutality. Khan and his Mongolian farms ruined cities, destroyed libraries, and burned down hospitals. The death toll from the invasion was in the millions.
  • 1227 AD Genkis Khan's Death

    1227 AD Genkis Khan's Death
    In 1227 AD Gengkis Khen died. The area that he had conquered was divided up among his sons. This was the beginning of the Mongol Empire in Persia.
  • 1207 AD Rumi

    1207 AD Rumi
    Rumi the most influential and famous Persian poet helped spread Sufism. Sufism is a sect of Islam that fouses more on mystical aspects. Rumi's followers created the famous Whirling Dervish mystic order.
  • 1295 AD Ghazan Khan

    1295 AD Ghazan Khan
    The first of the Mongolian rulers of Persia named Ghazan Khan converted to Islam. Khan became "persianized". Throughout histroy the invaders of Persia often did become "persianized". This brought a period of peace and prosperity to Persia.
  • 1405 AD Timur

    1405 AD Timur
    Timur conquered all of Persia and some of the surrounding areas. Like the Mongol invasion, Timur's had much cruelty and murder. Timur was also a patron of the arts though, and helped to support Persia's artists.
  • 1501 AD Shah Ismail I

    1501 AD Shah Ismail I
    Shah Ismail I, an Iranian, became the leader of the empire, and began the Safavid dynasty. This was the first time in nine centuries that Iran was not under the reign of foriegn or fragmented leadership. Shah Ismail I was a Shi'ite and he declared that everyone under his rule was also a Shi'ite converting many people from Sunnism to Shi'ism. This set Persia apart from many of the surrounding Islamic nations.
  • 1722 Mahmoud Khan

    1722 Mahmoud Khan
    Mahmoud Khan an Afghan chieftan and a follower of the Safavids attacked the capital of Persia. There was little resistence, and the event ended the Safavid dynasty.
  • 1729 AD Nader Shah

    1729 AD Nader Shah
    Nader Shah, who was a follower of the Safavids, expelled the Afghan leader. He reunited Persia with brilliant military strategy. In one of his conquests he captured the the Sea of Light and the Mountain of Light, which are the worlds two greatest diamonds.
  • 1779 Qajar Dynasty

    1779 Qajar Dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was again reunited Iran. The ruler within this dynasty were often weak and corrupt. During this time the West was undergoing an industrial revolution, and Iran fell behind in both their economy and their military.
  • 1813 - 1906 Imperialism

    1813 - 1906 Imperialism
    The beginning of Imperialism brought many invasions of Iran. Russia and Great Britain were the primary invaders. First the Qajars lost Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan to Russia in unfair treaties. Then they were forced to have a "Capitulation" law, which basically said that foriegners within Iran do not have to be subject to any of their laws. Then the Qajars lost their central Asian areas to Russia. They also lost Afghanistan to Brtiain. The British and Russians controlled the politics of Iran.
  • 1906 AD Iran Divided

    1906 AD Iran Divided
    The people's discontent with the Qajar caused the Constitutional Revolution, in which they created a parliament. The parliament never really came into effect though. Instead, Iran was divided and the North was controlled by the Russians, and the East and West by the British.
  • 1921 AD Reza Khan

    1921 AD Reza Khan
    In 1921 Reza Khan staged a coup. The coup was successful. At first Reza was the minister of war, then he made himself the Prime Minister, and then he made himself a Shah. Reza wanted to become the leader of a republic, but the clergy convinced him to become a Shah because they feared the people would become less religious.
  • 1941 AD Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

    1941 AD Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
    In 1941 the Allies invaded Iran to build a railway to supply the Soviet Union with supplies. The Shah was forced to step down and went to South Africa. His son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, became the Shah.
  • 1951 Ad Dr. Mossadeq

    1951 Ad Dr. Mossadeq
    Dr. Mossadeq tried to nationalize Iran's oil from British control. The British responded by staging a trade embargo on Iran, which crippled Iran's economy. Then, the British Intelligence and the CIA sponsored a coup to take down the Prime Minister Dr. Mossadeq, with the reason being a "communist takeover". The Shah was then reinstated.
  • 1962 AD Shah's White Revolution

    1962 AD Shah's White Revolution
    The Shah introduced his White Revolution. The Revolution had many reforms like women and worker rights. His plans were poorly executed though. Then, in a series of public speeches, Ayatollah Khomeini attacked the reforms. He was arrested and then exiled.
  • 1979 AD Rise of Khomeini

    1979 AD Rise of Khomeini
    The Shah's determination to modernize Iran led to cultural shock, inflation, and corruption. By the late 1970s, the Shah's opponents, of all political affiliations, united behind Ayatollah Khomeini. The Shah was overthrown in 1979 by the Islamic Revolution and died in Egypt a year later.
  • 1980 AD Iran-Iraq War

    1980 AD Iran-Iraq War
    In 1980 the Iran-Iraq War started and lasted for eight years. During the war in 1985 the Iran-Contra Affair occured, in which Ragan sold arms to Iran, which was then the subject of an arms embargo.
  • 1989 AD Khomeini

    1989 AD Khomeini
    On June 3, 1989 Ayatollah Khomeini died. On 4 June, President Khamene'i was appointed as the new supreme leader.
  • 1995 AD

    1995 AD
    The US imposed oil and trade sanctions over Iran's alleged sponsorship of "terrorism". They were seeking to acquire nuclear arms. Iran denied the charges.
  • 2000 AD Khatami

    2000 AD Khatami
    In 2000, liberals and supporters of Khatami got control of parliament from conservatives for the first time. Khatami became the leader of Iran. This followed student protests.
  • 2002 AD "Axis of Evil"

    2002 AD "Axis of Evil"
    President George Bush describes Iraq, Iran and North Korea as an "axis of evil", and warns of long-range missiles being developed in these countries. The speech causes outrage in Iran and is condemned by reformists and conservatives alike.
  • 2004 AD Conservative Control

    2004 AD Conservative Control
    Conservatives regained control of parliament in elections. Thousands of reformist candidates were disqualified by the hardline Council of Guardians before the polls. The Council is composed of six Islamic Jurists who are tasked with the job of making sure Islamic values are maintained in government.
  • 2005 AD Nuclear Crisis

    2005 AD Nuclear Crisis
    Iran resumed uranium conversion at its Isfahan plant and insisted that the program was for peaceful purposes. IAEA finds Iran in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
  • 2008 AD Relationship with Iraq

    2008 AD Relationship with Iraq
    President Ahmadinejad made an unprecedented official visit to Iraq, where he called on foreign troops to leave. He also showed the Iran government's desire to help rebuild Iraq and signs a number of cooperation agreements. After this the US tightened their economic sanctions on Iran.
  • 2010 AD US + Iran

    2010 AD US + Iran
    President Ahmadinejad declared that Obama is following the same mis-guided path in the Middle East the Bush followed. SInce then, both internal and external pressures have increased.