Europe 1918

World War I

  • World War I Begins

  • Japan declares war on Austria Hungary and Germany

  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Kaiser William II promised German support for Austria-Hungary against Serbia

  • Britain warns Germany it cannot remain neutral to the war

  • Russian council decides to support Serbia

  • Goeben Breslau Incident

  • Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia

  • Russia doesn't stop moblization against Austria Hungary despite Germany's plea

  • Germany declares war on Russia

    After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the Russians mobilized troops onto Germany and Austria-Hungary’s boarders. The Germans saw this as an aggressive act from Russia and ordered them to move away from the boarder. When Russia declined Germany declared war on Russia on August 1st 1914.
  • Germany declared war on France and invaded Belgium. Germany had to implement the Schlieffen Plan.

    Germany Declares war on France – The French were allied with the Russians through the Triple Entente. The German leaders knew that if they waited for France to invade Germany then they would be fighting on multiple fronts. The Germans had planned for this situation and put the Schlieffen Plan into effect.
  • Britain mobilizes troops

  • Britain declares war on Germany, First Battle of Ypres

  • Great Britain Declares War on Germany

  • The Ottomans close off Dardenelles, cutting off Russian support

  • Serbia declares war against Germany

  • Austria invades Serbia across the rivers Saba and Drina

  • Ottoman - German treaty is approved

  • Japan issues an ultimatum to Germany demanding to withdraw from the Chinese waters and Tsingtao

  • Battle of Jadar is won by Serbia

  • The Russian Army enters east Prussia, Battle of Stalluponen

  • Serbian forces severely defeat the Austrian-Hungary army in the Battle of Cer

  • The Germans attack thr Russians in east Prussia

  • Battle of Tannenburg

    Starting on August 23rd and ending August 30th the Battle of Tannenburg was one of the key battles in the eastern theater. The Russian 2nd arms marched into German territory. Despite going against the Schlieffen Plan the Germans had a key victory. A large majority of the Russians second army was crushed during the battle. Much of the first army was in retreat but was set up to be crushed in later battles.
  • Japanese forces surround Qingdao

  • Caucasus Campaign begins

  • Russia declares war on Ottoman Empire

  • Britain declares war on The Ottoman Empire

  • The Japanese occupy Qingdao

  • Serbian forces decisively defeat the Austro-Hungarian army in the Battle of Kolubara driving them out of Serbia.

  • Battle of Lodz begins

  • Japan sends the Twenty-One Demands to the Chinese nominal government

  • The first Zeppelin raid on Britain

  • Imperial Japanese Navy marines suppress a mutiny by Indian troops against the government

  • Britain bombarded Turkish forts in the Dardanelles

  • Second Battle of Ypres

    First time for Germans to use chlorine gas, which surprised Allies who were unprepared for the attack. Fighting stopped on May 27th. There were 95,000 deaths, most of which were British.
  • Battle of Gallipoli begins

  • Sinking of the Lusitania

  • Signing of the Tehcir Law

  • Nicholas II takes position as commander-in-chief of the Russian Army

  • The French and Serbian armies break through at Salonika Front

  • Serbia is invaded by Germany and Austria-Hungary under the command of Field Marshal August Von Mackensen

  • Bulgaria declares war on Serbia

  • Russia declares war on Bulgaria

  • Britain announces a blockade of all German ports

  • Serbian field Marshal Radomir Putnik orders the retreat to Adriatic Coast through Montenegro and Albania to be transported by the Allied Ships to Corfu

  • Siege of Kut begins

  • Battle of Verdon

    Starting on February 21st 1916 the battle lasted until December 18th 1916. The Germans had accepted that a large scale break through is no longer possible due to trench warfare. Instead, the German chief of staff Erich Von Falkenhayn decided that if France suffered enough causality’s they would be forced out of the war.
  • Arab revolt begins

  • One of the German submarines UB-29, mistakenly sank a French cross-channel ferry, the Sussex

  • Battle of the Somme

    Starting on July 1st 1916 the battle of Soome lasted until November 18th 1916. It was an offensive that the Allies mounted against the Germans. The Battle of Soome was made up of about 15 smaller offences that all generally followed the strategy of General Sir Henery Rawlinson which was to bombard the Germans with artillery and then fight the remaining forces with their infantry regiments.
  • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson consequently addressed Congress vehemently condemning the German Action

  • Germany agreed to the Sussex pledge

  • British forces surrendered to Turkish forces at Kut in Mesopotamia

  • Brusilov Offensive

    While the Germans were attacking Verdon the French asked the Russians to mount an offensive in the east in hopes of Germany sending troops to the eastern front, giving the French relief. In what started out as just a diversion the Russians actually made significant progress. They systematically shattered the Austrian line and marched into the city of Lutsk.
  • Japan and Russia sign treaty to not make desperate peace with Germany

  • Rasputin Is assasinated

  • Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare

  • Operation Alberich is authorized

    The Hindenburg line was a heavily fortified German defense line that was constructed behind the front during the earlier years of the war should Germany need to retreat. In February of 1917 the Germans started withdrawing back to the line.
  • Zimmerman telegram is released to press by US State Department

  • Czar Nicholas II abdicates Russia under provisional government

  • United States comes out of neutrality and declares war on Germany, thus entering the first world war

  • The first U.S. Troops begin arriving in France. These are men of the U.S. 1st Division

  • Third Battle of Ypres

    Also known as the Battle of Passchendaele was an offensive that the allies implemented on July 31st and stretched until November 6th. Germany had compiled 4 lines of defense on the front of which hey assigned 12 infantry divisions to defend. The Germans had the defensive advantage of the Belgian mountains and the Allies were faced with the river and large valley.
  • Britain launched a major offensive on the Western Front

  • Japan and America sign Lansing-Ishii Agreement to reduce tension

  • The October revolution begins, the Boslheviks seize power

  • The Cambrai Offensive

    The British were trying to break through the Hindenburg line during the battle of Cambrai. The attack started on November 20th 1917, where the British forces saw early success. As the British broke further into the line Germany began sending reinforcements. Even with the aid of tanks the British were dwindling. By December 3rd the British were in retreat, by December 7th 1917 all advancements that were gained in the original offense had been abandon.
  • The United States declares war on Austria-Hungary

  • Britain captured Jerusalem from the Turks

  • Britain request naval support from Japan. Two Japanese cruisers are sent to Cape Town South Africa.

  • Russia signs armistice with Germany

  • President Woodrow Wilson delivers his fourteen point speech to the U.S. Congress

  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    This was a treaty between the central powers and Russia, officially marking Russia’s surrender. The treaty was signed on March 3rd of 1918. It stated that the Russian’s would transfer territory to the Ottoman Empire and to Germany. The territory transferred to Germany included: the Baltic States, Belarus, Poland, and Ukraine.
  • U.S. Forces (28th Regiment of 1st Division) are victorious in their first major action, battle of Cantigny

  • US President Woodrow Wilson agrees to US interview in Serbia

  • “Black Day of German Army”

    Allies began pushing Germans back, finally broke through the Hindenburg Line in October. Germans admitted defeat later in October, and by November were forced to sign the Armistice called the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Armistice of Murdos; also end of Caucasus Campaign, and Arab Revolt

  • Allies accept the fourteen points

  • Armistice day as fighting ceases at 11 am- World War I ends. Central Powers are Forced to annul the Brest- Litovsk Treaty

  • Paris Peace Conference

    On January 18th 1919 representatives from the allied countries came together in Paris to decide the peace treaty’s to insure a lasting peace. The Paris Peace conference decided on numerous treaties related to the Great War. The countries involved in the Paris Peace conference became part of the League of Nations (except for the United States).
  • Treaty of Versailles

    One of the treaty’s that came from the Paris peace council. This treaty was passed on June 28th 1919 and stated Germany’s punishment. Punishments included loss of territory, not being allowed to have an alliance with Austria-Hungary,The League of Nations took control of Germanys colonies, and a limited Military size.