World War I

  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Sarajevo, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were shot by a Bosnian Serb nationalist while on a visit to Sarajevo.Austria-Hungary immediately blamed Serbia for the incident. With the large, powerful Russia supporting Serbia, Austria-Hungary asked Germany to its side to go up against Russia and its allies, including France and Britain. (Guts 2 ,3,4)
  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia

    Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia
    Because Austria-Hungary felt threatened by Serbian ambition within the Balkans region, it was decided that the best response to the assassination would be a military invasion on Serbia. Russia mobilized as soon as war was declared on Serbia. (Guts 1,2,3,4)
  • Gemany Enters the War

    Gemany Enters the War
    Germany entered the war for the reason staying beside it dependable ally Austria-Hungary. Germany declared wars on Russia on this day as well. (Guts 1,3,5)
  • Germany Declares War on Russia

    Germany Declares War on Russia
    Russia was already partially mobilized against Austria-Hungary, and full mobilization would mean war with Germany. Germany mobilized its troops in order to make Russia halt its troops and officially declared war on the country when Russia refused. Russia entered the war in defense for the Slavic people of Serbia.(Guts 1,2,4,5)
  • Germany Declares War on France

    Germany Declares War on France
    Germany declares war on France with the long-held plan by Alfred von Schlieffen to fight on two fronts against France as well as Russia. France entered the war to avoid fighting Germany alone later.(Guts 1,4,5)
  • Schlieffen Plan-Germany Invades Belgium

    Schlieffen Plan-Germany Invades Belgium
    Going according to the Schlieffen plan, the German army would attack France as soon as Russia mobilized, by heading through and invading neutral Belgium moving along the coastal area quickly. The Germans had planned to head over to Russia after France was defeated. (Guts 5,7,8)
  • Great Britain Declares War on Germany

    Great Britain Declares War on Germany
    Britain declared war on Germany for the violation on Belgian neutrality as well as its concern about maintaining Britain's own power. The declaration binded all areas withing the the British Empire like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and India as well. (Guts 1,2,5)
  • Battle of Tannenberg

    Battle of Tannenberg
    The German army made its move to attack the Second Army of the Russian army invading southeast Germany. It was here that the Russian army suffered a major defeat with 30,000 killed or wounded and another 92,000 taken to prison. The German army had only suffered 13,000 casualties. (Guts 6 and 7)
  • First Battle of the Marne

    First Battle of the Marne
    Being a major turning point of the war, this battle, fought in northeastern France, was responsible for beginning trench warfare. It was here that the Schlieffen Plan was ended and defeated when French troops drove the Germans back up the Aisne River, stopping the invasion of France. (Guts 6 and 7)
  • First Battle of Ypres

    First Battle of Ypres
    Fought near the Belgian city of Ypres, Allied and German forces begin battles to control the city in its advantageous position on Belgium's north coast. (Guts 6 and 8)
  • Christmas Truce on the Western Front

    Christmas Truce on the Western Front
    Sounds of rifles, firing and shelling fade in many areas, and the sounds of Christmas carols prompt soldiers form both sides to exchange greetings and goodwill for the holidays.
  • First German Zeppelin Air Raid on Britain

    First German Zeppelin Air Raid on Britain
    Three German zeppelins, the L.3, L.4 and L.6, embark on a two-day bombing mission against Great Britain on the eastern coast of England. Britain suffered its first casualties in an air attack at this point. (Gut 7)
  • Turkish Army Disarms Armenian Troops

    Armenian soldiers are disarmed and segregated by the Turkish army and placed in labor battalions. This was done in the fear that Christian Armenian were aiding Orthodox Russians against Turkey. (Gut 12)
  • Deportation of Armenians

    Deportation of Armenians
    The Turkish begin forced deportations of Armenians in this month over to the Syrian Desert or the Konia Desert. There they would starve to death, die of thirst of be murdered by Turkish troops bandits. (Gut 12)
  • Germany Declares a Submarine Blockade of England

    Germany Declares a Submarine Blockade of England
    Germany declares a submarine blockade on England, and forms a war zone around the nation. Merchant ships are sunk without warning in the British waters. (Gut 8)
  • Battle of Gallipoli Begins

    Battle of Gallipoli Begins
    An attack launched by the Allies to seize the Dardanelles Straits in northwestern Turkey. This battle was unsuccessful among the Allies with a failed naval attack and indecision and delay stalling progress to invade the Gallipoli Peninsula . Casualties piled up to 300,000 for the Turks and 214,000 for the Allies. Had Gallipoli been successful among the Allies, Turkey would have been kicked out of the war. (Guts 6 and 7)
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    At 2:10 pm the passenger ship Lusitania was hit by a torpedo fired from a German submarine. The Lusitania sank 18 minutes after the fire; over 1200 passengers died, with over 120 being Americans. Because of this incident, the Americans' attitude on the war shifted from neutral to pro-Allies. (Guts 1 and 7)
  • News of Armenian Massacres Surface in Europe and America

    News of Armenian massacres spread over to Europe and North America to outrage and alarm.
  • Germans Capture Warsaw

    Germans Capture Warsaw
    The Central Powers start a new offensive on the Russians. When the Russians saw this, civilians were forced to evacuate Poland. Russian troops are finally surrounded north of Warsaw. Their defense cost them over 90,000 casualties and were forced to retreat, leaving them with only a small part of Poland.
  • The Great Retreat

    The Great Retreat
    German advance into Poland weakens Russia. The advance was already clearly unstoppable for the Russians, and continuing to hold on to Poland would mean destruction to the remaining armies. Russia was forced to make a series of retreats. (Gut 9 and 11)
  • Czar Nicholas II Takes Command of the Russian Army

    Czar Nicholas II Takes Command of the Russian Army
    Czar Nicholas, hoping to rally faltering troops, takes command over the Russian army. Russia had already suffered a number of casualties, and was economically weakened by loss of industrial and agricultural output from Poland. (Guts 9 and 11)
  • Battle of Verdun Begins

    Battle of Verdun Begins
    The longest battle of Word War I. It was planned by the Germans to be a massive attack on Verdun, which had historic sentiment for the French, and was to be a victory for the Germans. The battle ended as one of the largest slaughters in history, and became a battle of attrition for the Germans with 282,000 German casualties. (Guts 5 and 6)
  • Germany Agrees to Limit Submarine Warfare

    Germany Agrees to Limit Submarine Warfare
    Germany agrees on limiting its submarine warfare as a response to President Woodrow Wilson threat on the Germans to curb their navy after the sinking of the Lusitania. This action angered many German naval leaders. (Gut 7)
  • Battle of Jutland

    Battle of Jutland
    The last and largest of all battles involving great battleships: the British Royal Navy fought against the German High Seas fleet on the North Sea. The British fleet was able to establish a ring a steel on the German coast of the North Sea, blocking supply movement into the country and trapping the German fleet in its port until it finally intervened. The British suffered more losses in the end, but each side claimed victory. (Guts 6,7,8)
  • Battle of the Somme Begins

    Battle of the Somme Begins
    This was considered the most costly battle for the British and a turning point for the attitude of the British in the war. It was of the largest , yet bloodiest battles fought in the war near the Somme River of France. The British troops had heavy bombardment but had failed to clear away German troops. (Guts 5 and 6)
  • Russia occupies Armenian Regions in the Ottoman Empire

    Russia occupies Armenian Regions in the Ottoman Empire
    Russian forces take control of all the Armenian regions after advancement into Armenian land in the Ottoman Empire. Unfortunately, most Armenians have already been deported and murdered at this point in time. (Gut 12)
  • Murder of Rasputin

    Murder of Rasputin
    "Self-fashioned Russian holy man" Grigori Rasputin was murdered by Russian nobles as an end to his sway over the royal family. Before, Rasputin ruled Russia effectively through the tsarina by influencing her. (Gut 9)
  • Germany Resumes Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

    Germany Resumes Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
    German navy commanders who were not prepared to accept the suspense of U-boat warfare, pushed for more aggressive us of the submarine by convincing the army, and eventually the government. (Guts 5 and 7)
  • Russian Revolution Breaks Out

    After 300 years of royal rule in Russia, the Tsarist government finally collapses. By this time, Russia's economy was already collapsing, leaving much food and fuel scarce. The decision that was made to stay in the war had definitely not been a good choice. (Guts 5 and 9)
  • Tsar Nicholas Abdicates

    Tsar Nicholas Abdicates
    Tsar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate his throne by Petrograd insurgents after the Petrograd joined striking workers for socialist reformations. (Gut 9)
  • American Steamer the Aztec Sunk by U-boat

    American Steamer the Aztec Sunk by U-boat
    The American steamer, the S.S. Aztec is sunk, having been torpedoed by a German U-boat in British waters drowning 28 Americans as a result. (Guts 7 and 8)
  • United States Enters the War

    United States Enters the War
    On this day, President Woodrow Wilson declared war against Germany due to unrestricted submarine warfare- attacks on American ships by German submarines. (Guts 1,7, 10)
  • Battle of Vimy Ridge

    Battle of Vimy Ridge
    This battle overlooked the plains of Artois, serving as crucial high ground. This was the first time all Canadian attacked together, and they successfully swept entrenched German troops out in only a day's time. At this point, this was the most successful Allied advance on the Western Front. (Guts 6,7,8)
  • Lenin Arrives Back in Russia

    Lenin Arrives Back in Russia
    After facing exile in Switzerland, the Germans smuggle Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin back to Russia. Lenin had hopes to spur mass strike of Russian workers. (Gut 9)
  • Nivelle Offensive Fails

    Nivelle Offensive Fails
    An Allied offensive against German troops near the Aisne River ends in failure for French troops led by Robert Nivelle. The attack Nivelle had planned out was failed to have been achieved with the French only making modest gains and slow progress resulting in high casualty rate among the French. Nivelle was forced to call off the attacks and later dissmissed form his postition. (Gut 8 and 11)
  • French Army Begins Threatening Mutinies

    French Army Begins Threatening Mutinies
    After a failed and disastrous assault on the German line, as well as military setbacks and long periods of being in the front line, thousands of troops threaten to mutiny. 55 of the over 20,000 soldiers guilty of mutiny were said to have been shot. (Gut 11)
  • "Total War" Concept is Realized

    A German airplane raid over England results in 95 casualties and 195 injured. The concept of bombing civilians is now introduced to the world. (Guts 5 and 7)
  • Espionage Act

    Espionage Act
    Congress enacts the Espionage Act, allowing the government to censor publications sent in the mail. It was also made a crime for Americans to aid or help enemy nations. (Gut 10)
  • Battle of Caporetto

    Battle of Caporetto
    Fought near the northern stretch of the Isonzo River in Italy, German and Austro-Hungarian Forces combined break through the Italian line. Italian casualties piled up to 300,000. Up until this point, Italy fought against Austria-Hungary alone. (Gut 5)
  • German-Russian Armistice Signed

    German-Russian Armistice Signed
    The German-Russian armistice was signed at Brest-Litovsk on this day, ending any hostility on the Eastern Front. With Russia pulling out of the way, this also allowed the Germans to break through French lines, having no longer the need to fight on two fronts anymore. (Gut 9)
  • Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
    President Wilson outlines his peace plan for post war, including the independence for Poland, restoration of Belgian independence, as well as the formation of the League of Nations. (Guts 14 and 16)
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Returns Armenia to Ottoman Empire

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Returns Armenia to Ottoman Empire
    After Russia had signed the treaty concluding hostility with the Central Powers, and were forced to return all Armenian regions to the now weakened and collapsing Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans announced amnesty to the remaining Armenians. (Gut 12 )
  • Last German Offensive (Kaiserschlacht)

    Last German Offensive (Kaiserschlacht)
    Known as the Emperor's Offensive, it pushed British troops back 40 miles to the point where they could no longer be supported. The attack took 163,000 British casualties, 77,000 French casualties, and over 250,000 German casualties. (Guts 7 and 11)
  • North Sea Mine Barrage

    North Sea Mine Barrage
    The U.S. navy places over 50,00 sea mines to create a 300 mile barrier against Germany. The barrier stretched all the way from Scotland to Norway. A total of five U-boats were reported to have been sunk, and other forced to waste valuable time to avoid the mines. (Guts 8,10,11)
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    The battle was a desperate final push for Germany. The Germans are pushed back across the Marne River for the first time since 1914 by the Allied forces, and retreat to the Hindenburg line. (Gut 6)
  • Tsar Nicholas Murdered

    Tsar Nicholas Murdered
    Former Tsar Nicholas along with his wife and children are shot to death by Bolsheviks in the town of Ekaterinburg after being held as prisoners near St. Petersburg. (Gut 9)
  • German U-boats Fail

    German U-boats Fail
    U-boats fail completely in an attempt to stop U.S. soldiers from being moved across the Atlantic. (Gut 10)
  • Massive Allied Attack Breaks Hindenburg Line

    Massive Allied Attack Breaks Hindenburg Line
    The Allies breach through the last line of German defenses on the Western Front, known as the Hindenburg line. The Germans were forced into retreat after four days, with heavy loss occurring on both sides. Kaiser Wilhelm was later pressured into accepting governmental reform by the military and the Central Powers fell into disarray. (Guts 11 and 16)
  • Lost Battalion

    Lost Battalion
    After four days in the Argonne Forest, the troops of Major Charles White Whittlesey are rescued. The battalion, which was part of a campaign against the Germans, were cut off without any adequate food or ammunition supply, which had left the troops vulnerable to the enemy. Only 194 out of the 463 of Whittlesey's men were rescued alive and unwounded in the end. (Guts 11 and 19)
  • German Sailors and Fleet Mutiny at Kiel

    Sailors of the German High Seas Fleet refuse to obey orders for a final attack on the powerful British navy, believing it to be a suicide mission. A total of 1000 mutineers were arrested, immobilizing the fleet. (Gut 17)
  • End of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

    End of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
    At this point in time, the Austro-Hungarian empire was already filled with disentigration. Ethnic groups in the empire sought to achieve independence, thus,splitting the empire into the nations of Austria and Hungary as well as Czechoslovakia whom declared its independence. (Guts 16 and 18)
  • Ottoman Empire Surrenders

    The now weakened empire surrenders to Allied powers, and the signed German-Russian armistice allowed all Armenian deportees to return to their homes. (Guts 12,17,19)
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Abdicates

    Kaiser Wilhelm Abdicates
    Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany was forced into abdication after popular unrest had settled in Germany along with the naval mutiny in order to preserve order. He spent his remaining in in exile in the Netherlands. (Gut 19)
  • Armistice Day- End of War

    Armistice Day- End of War
    The war ended on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918. Nine million soldiers have died while 21 million more have bee wounded in the war. The nations of Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France and Great Britain all lost a million or more lives. It is reported that at least five million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure. (Guts 17 and 19)
  • Yugoslavia Becomes an Independent State

    Yugoslavia Becomes an Independent State
    Known first as the "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, it was formed after the war and was renamed "Yugoslavia" by Alexander I of Yugoslavia. The area consisted of former independent nations, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, as well as a part of Austria (Dalmatia) and Hungary (Vojvodina), along with Bosnia. (Guts 11,16,18)
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    Delegates from around the world meet in Paris to make a peace settlement after the war.(Gut 13)
  • David Lloyd George

    David Lloyd George
    Prime minister of Great Britain, David Lloyd George wanted nothing more simple than to "make the Germans pay." (Gut 13)
  • President Woodrow Wilson

    President Woodrow Wilson
    When it came down to negotiating peace, president Woodrow Wilson wanted a League of Nations to prevent more wars from happening in the future. (Guts 13 and 15)
  • Ottoman Empire Broken

    Ottoman Empire Broken
    The now weak Ottoman Empire is broken up and independent Arab states were recognized with the break up, including Jordan,Palestine,Lebanon,Syria, and Iraq. (Guts 16 and 18)
  • Georges Clemenceau

    Georges Clemenceau
    Premier of France, Georges Clemenceau wanted to get revenge as wells as security against future German aggressions. Clemenceau also wanted the Germans stripped of all weapons. (Gut 13)
  • Control of Arab States

    After the Ottoman Empire was broken up, Great Britain took control of Iraq and Palestine, while France took control of Lebanon and Syria. (Gut 16)
  • Mandate System

    Mandate System
    A mandate system was created by the peace settlement system: a nation would govern another nation, but not as its own territory according to the League of Nations due to President Wilson's opposition of annexing territory. (Guts 14,15,16)
  • "Gassed"

    This painting by John Singer Sargent depicts soldiers blinded by a mustard gas attack- a horror witnessed by Sargent himself in the war. (Gut 20)
  • Treaty of Versailles Signed

    Treaty of Versailles Signed
    The most important of all peace treaties signed after the final peace settlement. Consisting of 15 parts and 440 articles, it reassigned German boundaries and liability for reparations. (Guts 14,16,17,19)
  • Alsace and Lorraine

    Alsace and Lorraine
    The regions of France, Alsace and Lorraine, which were taken away by Germany in 1871, were restored to France with the Treaty of Versailles. (Guts 14, 16,18)
  • German Land

    German Land
    After the war, German land became a dematerialized zone on both sides of the Rhine River. Germany was stripped from all weapons and fortification by the Treaty of Versailles. (Guts 14,17,19)
  • New Nations

    New Nations
    After the war, new nation-states such as Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria and Hungary emeged on the European map. (Guts 14 and 18)
  • "War Cripples"

    "War Cripples"
    (Note: The exact date of the painting is unknown) This painting by Otto Dix captures the horrors and aftermath and disillusionment of war and the permanent crippling effects it has on the people. (Gut 20)
  • Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises

    Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises
    This novel written by Ernest Hemingway introduced to audiences around the world the Lost Generation after World War I. (Gut 20)
  • Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse

    Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse
    This novel was considered as an influence from World War I: highlighted in it was the mindsets, as well as family and society before and after the Great War. (Gut 20)
  • J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings

    J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings
    Tolkien was a soldier whom fought in World War I: much of the events written in the novel allude to the horrors of the Great War, for instance, France after the Battle of the Somme influenced the setting of the "Dead Marshes" on the story. (Gut 20)