1990's and 2000's Top ten IT events

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    EVOLUTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY

  • Pavlov's Theory of Classical Conditioning

    Pavlov's Theory of Classical Conditioning
    In 1906, Ivan Pavlov demonstrated a procedure forinducing classical conditioning involving a neutral stimulus along with an unconditional stimulus presenting an unconditional response. Remember our 6th graders? Positive reinforcement will help repeat the action and consider the activity learned.
  • Visual Instruction Movement

    Visual Instruction Movement
    From 1914-1923, the visual instruction movementgrew dramatically; “[f]ive national professionalorganizations for visual instruction were established,five journals focusing on visual instruction beganpublication, more than 20 teacher-training institutions.began offering courses in visual instruction, and atleast a dozen large-city school systems developedbureaus of visual instruction (Reiser and Dempsey19). Using media to teach was beginning to becomea major part of education.
  • First Computers

    First Computers
    The Mark 1 and ENIAC, invented in the 1940s, werethe first computers that were put into use.("Computers In Education: A Brief History" ). Withthat as a starting point, companies such as Apple,Inc. and IBM made great gains in bringing personalcomputers to the masses.
  • WORLD WAR II

    WORLD WAR II
    During World War II, the military became a leader in instructional systems research and development and established the importance of the instructional technologist as part of the instructional design team. This led to increased funding for educational research and development.
  • Federal Communication Comission

    Federal Communication Comission
    Federal Communication Commission (FCC) adopts The Sixth Report and Order document which dedicated 252 television channels exclusively for educational use. This was fueled in part by the Ford Foundation which spent $170 million on educational television in the early 1950’s.
  • B.F. SKINNER

    B.F. SKINNER
    B. F. Skinner publishes the article “The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching” it is the first time learning is explained as “programmed instruction”. Characteristics of Programmed Instruction were behavioral objectives, small frames of instruction, self-pacing, active learner response to inserted questions, and immediate feedback regardless to correctness of the response. This helped shift education’s focus to the outcome behavior of the learner. He invented a machine to teach arithmetis
  • Bloom's Taxonomy

    Bloom's Taxonomy
    Benjamin Bloom publishes “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives” – This describes three domains of learning: Cognitive (what one knows or thinks), Psychomotor (what one does, physically) and Affective (what one feels, or what attitudes one has). Even today, these taxonomies are a significant influence for the design of instruction
  • 1st Artificial Satellite

    1st Artificial Satellite
    Russia launches the first artificial satellite, named Sputnik. In response, President Dwight D. Eisenhower creates the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and spends millions on a US push for math and science education and as a result, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was passed and the government increased funding for media research and curriculum development (especially in mathematics and science), as well as University-based research and development
  • Programmed Instruction

    Programmed Instruction
    Robert Mager publishes the first edition of, “Preparing Instructional Objectives for Programmed Instruction”. This book helped popularize the use of performance objectives by educators and is a standard for anyone in training or instructional design industries. 
  • PLATO

    PLATO
    The Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations (PLATO) instructional computing system is developed by the University of Illinois. Later acquired by Control Data Corporation (CDC) this program is widely used in college and K-12 classrooms particularly for online instruction.
  • DAVI / AECT

    DAVI / AECT
    The Department of Audiovisual Instruction (DAVI)later the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) publishes the first formal definition of Instructional Technology. It placed emphasis on learning rather than instruction and shifted from strictly media to the “design and use of messages which control the learning process”. Also included: steps of instructional design process, which consisted of planning, production, selection, utilization, and management of instructional
  • Criterion Reference Test

    Criterion Reference Test
    Robert Glaser formulated the Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT). The CRT is one that provides for translating test scores into a statement about the behavior to be expected of a person with that particular score or their relationship to a specified subject matter. Most tests and quizzes written by school teachers are criterion-referenced tests, and are used to see whether the student has learned the material based on percentage of other students objectives mastered.
  • ERIC

    ERIC
    The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) is formed. This is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education. ERIC provides ready access to education literature to support the use of educational research and information to improve practice in learning, teaching, educational decision-making, and research
  • LOGO

    LOGO developed – this is a computer programming language used for functional programming. It is an adaptation and dialect of the Lisp language. Logo was created in 1967 for educational use, more so for constructivist teaching, by Daniel G. Bobrow, Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon. The name is derived from the Greek logos meaning word, emphasizing the contrast between itself and other existing programming languages that processed numbers.
  • Videoconferencing

    Videoconferencing
    Videoconferencing allowed clients to meet who couldn’t physically attend meeting and a decrease in travel expenses. This technology allows people to interact with each other using audio and video transmission.
  • MIcrocomputers

    MIcrocomputers
    Microcomputers became available. The world’s first microprocessor is the Intel 4004. This is obviously a massive step in the development of instructional technology. Without the ability to house computers without using an entire room, we wouldn’t be able to use this form of technology in our industries. Also in the 1970s, the world’s first supercomputer was released as “Cray-1”. The creation of computers continues to 1981, when the first personal computer, the IBM PC was released.
  • ETHERNET

    ETHERNET
    The Ethernet was invented. Ethernet was created to allow computers to communicate across an entire building. It’s amazing that the beginning stages communicated roughly one paragraph of data across at a distance of 1 kilometer.
  • ADDIE

    ADDIE
    Florida State University creates the ADDIE model for U.S. Army. This is an important instructional technology event because this was a beginning to a system’s approach to learning. Utilizing this model enables the instructional designer to use a systematic step-by-step approach to training that can be applied to both individualized and traditional learning environments.

  • Apple II and IBM PC

    Apple II and IBM PC
    In 1977, the Apple II is the first computer to use color graphics and helped make images on computers look more like what they are representing in real life thus helping the visual learner. In 1981, IBM created the personal computer. Today, having a PC at home or at the office is an essentialpart of everyday living.
  • TCP

    TCP
    Computer scientist, Vinton Cerf, developed a way for all of the computers on all of the world’s mini-networks to communicate with one another. He called his invention “Transmission Control Protocol,” or TCP. (Later, he added an additional protocol, known as “Internet Protocol.” The acronym we use to refer to these today is TCP/IP.) This important instructional technology event enabled computers from across the world to communicate with each other in a standardized way.
  • MIcrosoft windows

    MIcrosoft windows
    Microsoft Corporation formally announced Microsoft Windows. Microsoft said Windows would be in stores by April 1984. It was originally going to be named Interface Manager but marketing whiz Rowland Hansen persuaded Bill Gates to change the name to Windows. In November, 1985 Microsoft Windows version 1.0 was released. In April 1987 Microsoft Windows version 2.0 was released
  • World Wide Web

    World Wide Web
    Even though development of the Internet started back in 1960's as a means of organize library catalogues, the internet became available to regular people and to schools after evolving from ctalogue based information to what it is known for now. The proposal of a new protocol for information distribution by CERN was called the World Wide Web in 1991. This protocol was based on hypertext -a system of embedding links in text to link to other text, which we have been using ever since.
  • Java

    Java
    Java was created in 1991 and launched in 1995. It is a must for interactive learning platforms like Blackboard.
  • Release of Windows 3.0

    Release of Windows 3.0
    Revolutionary Windows 95, a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. It featured significant improvements over its predecessor, Windows 3.1, most notably in the graphical user interface and its plug and play feature. On May22,1990 Microsoft released Windows version 3.0. It sells close to thirty million copies in a year; windows becomes the industry standard in consumer ( including school systems) opera
  • Google

    Google
    Google began in March 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Ph.D. students at Stanford[1] working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). Google has been used widely by everyone, even at schools for student research.
  • learning portals

    learning portals
    The late 1990s brought the arrival of learning portals such as eCollege, HungryMinds, and Blackboard.
    The term "elearning" emerged as the dot-com term for distance education in the year 2000. In 1993 Jones International University became the first online accredited university. In 1999 it received North Central Accreditation.
  • DVD

    DVD
    Invented in 1993 but comercially released in 1997, The DVD opened up the doors for instructional media in schools, households and the workplace. Languages for example were taught with the use of DVD videos.
  • Constructivism

    Constructivism
    Learners "construct" their own knowledge by reflecting on their experiences. In education, instructors would take on more of a role as facilitator as opposed to "teacher." It boomed in the 1990's-2000's due to the increased use of technology as an instructional tool. "Communal Constructivism" was introduced in 2001 by Bryn Holmes. It mentions how students are part of the learning process.
  • Social Media

    Social Media
    Prior to social media, companies created their internet content. The communication was 1 to many. Social media allows the user to create internet content turning the dialogue flow into many to many. It enables relationship building
    (bussiness, personal, political) Facebook Started in 2004, YouTube in 2005, Twitter in 2006, eBay in 1996.
  • Educational Technology

    Educational Technology
    The 2007 definition of Educational Technology by the AECT is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources." Words like facilitation and performance helped to change the way the field is viewed.
  • Touch Technology

    Touch Technology
    The iPod touch was released to the public. Invented two years before, this device massively grasped people's attention. Touch Technology was first prototyped in 1958 and has developed ever since. Most notably Smart technologies Interactive whiteboard which is widely used in today's classrooms.