History of oceanography nancy blanco 6

  • 276

    B.C. Eratosthenes

    B.C. Eratosthenes
    the world’s circumference by using
    observations obtained while looking down a
    well on the summer solstice, when the sun is
    directly over head at the Tropic of Cancer.
    He noticed that the well was totally
    illuminated at noon and made several
    mathematical assumptions and calculations
    based on distances of two cities, angles, and
    circumference of a circle.
  • 490

    B.C Pytheas

    B.C Pytheas
    Pytheas sailed northward from Greece
    to Iceland in 325 BC and worked out a
    method for determining latitudes and
    using astronomical measurements
    proposed that tides were a product of
    lunar influences.
    Pytheas is also responsible for contributions to early
    navigation methods that we still use today.
     He measured the angle between the horizon and the
    North Star (Polaris is located directly above the
  • Jan 5, 982

    A.D Eric The Red

    A.D Eric The Red
    982 A.D. Eric the Red sailed westward from
    Greenland and discovered Baffin Island.
     995 A.D. Eric’s son, Leif Ericson, discovered what was
    then called Vineland and spent the winter in an area
    of North America we call Newfoundland.
     Beginning in the 13th century the climate again began
    to cool and the North Atlantic began to clog with ice
    throughout most of the year once again isolating the
    Viking colonies north where they were unable to
    “move” into the new territories they had found.
  • Jan 7, 1400

    prince henry the navigator

    prince henry the navigator
    Early to mid 1400’s Prince Henry “The
    Navigator” established a marine observatory to
    improve the Portuguese sailing endeavors and
    conquered one of the greatest trades
    problems-getting around the tip of Africa
     The Cape of Good Hope was finally rounded by
    Bartholomeu Diaz in 1486
     Explored canary isles, African coast (Columbus
    1492)
     Vasco de Gama rounded Africa and continued
    on to India in 1498
     This event was followed by Spain, England, &
    other Europeans searching for new lands.
     The Pacif
  • Jan 7, 1513

    Magellan

    Magellan
    Spanish
    captain, Ferdinand
    Magellan, circumnavigated
    the globe through a passage
    way at 52° S latitude now
    called the Straights of
    Magellan.
  • James Cook

    James Cook
    notoriety and several more voyages charting New
    Zealand, East coast of Australia, southern India
    Ocean. South Pacific, rediscovered Easter Island and
    many others along the way.
     Cook was noted for preserving the health of his crew
    by requiring them to drink Lime Juice regularly
    preventing scurvy and developing a chronometer
    which is used to determine longitudinal locations.
     Cook discovered Hawaiian group in 1778 and
    determined the outline of the worlds largest ocean
    and the first person known
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Discovering Surface currents
    and therefore in 1777 published
    the first map of the Gulf
    Stream.
     Suggested use of thermometers
    to locate warm waters of G.S.
    – Eastbound stay in G.S.
    – Westbound avoid G.S.
  • Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin
    investigated the whole
    of nature leading him to make
    one of the most outstanding
    contributions to biology while
    on his voyage aboard the
    H.M.S Beagle.
     December 27, 1831 – Under
    Captain Robert Fitzroy a 5
    year trip surveyed the coast
    line resulted in
     Darwin Publishing several
    papers the most famous ones
    being his papers Natural
    Selection and The Origin of
    the Species.
  • Matthew Maury

    Matthew Maury
    In 1853 established uniform methods of
    making nautical and meteorological
    observations at sea.
     This standardization greatly increased the
    dependability of such data summarized in his
    publication The Physical Geography of the
    Sea.
  • Period: to

    challenger expedition

    First large-scale voyage with the
    purpose of increasing knowledge of the
    distribution of life in the ocean and of
    the chemical and physical properties of
    the ocean
  • B.C. Phoenicians

    B.C. Phoenicians
    Traveled extensively throughout
    Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean.
    They discovered the Canary Islands and
    established trade with Eastern Asia.