Portuguese explorer was 1st European to sail around southern tip of Africa & Indian Ocean, paving the way for other explorers to find sea routes from Europe to Asia.
Christopher Columbus & The New World
Columbus, an Italian working for the Spanish Monarchy, discovered the island of San Salvador — modern-day Bahamas — instead of reaching India. He would lead 3 more voyages to the Caribbean & Central America coast till 1504.
Jun 7, 1494
Treaty of Tordesillas
After signing the Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal and Spain divided the newly discovered land into two sections using a line of demarcation in the Atlantic Ocean.
Cabot, an Italian navigator & explorer working for the English, discovered Newfoundland.
Vasco da Gama
Vasco de Gama followed the route discovered by Portuguese Explorers as they pushed farther south along the African coast, all the way to India.
Italian-born explorer, merchant, and navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, was the 1st person to recognize North and South America as distinct continents while sailing near the tip of South America in 1501.
Apr 25, 1507
German mapmaker names the "New World"
A German mapmaker names the region of the New World, America and Caribbean islands are named the West Indies.
He was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who defeated the Aztecs and claimed Mexico for Spain.
Sep 20, 1519
Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer, set out on September 9th to find a route to the Spice Islands, and ended up being the first European person to ever cross from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean & traveled through what is now called Strait of Magellan. He was one of the first explorers to circumnavigate the globe.
Giovanni da Verrazano
Verrazano, an Italian navigator and French explorer, discovered the entrance of the Hudson River.
Pizarro, a Spanish conquistador, arrives in Peru to assassinate the Inca Emperor, Atahuapla, and conquer the Incas.
Period: 1534 to 1541
Jacques Cartier's 3 Voyages
King Francis I authorized Cartier to lead a voyage to the New World seeking gold, new riches, and a new route to Asia.
Period: 1577 to 1580
Sir Francis Drake & South America Expedition
Drake was chosen as a leader for an expedition, whose course was to pass South America, through the Strait of Magellan, & explore the coast beyond that land. His expedition was successful & when he returned from the journey, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.
The East India Company
Group of English merchants form East India Company, breaking the Spanish & Portuguese monopoly of East Indian spice trade.
The Dutch East India Company
This trading company was considered as one of the 1st and most successful international cooperations, The Dutch East India Company was a trading company founded in the Dutch republic. The main purpose of the company was for trade, exploration and colonization.
Under the leadership of Champlain, the French established trading posts at Acadia.
Espiritu Santo Island and Torres Strait
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, a Portuguese explorer, and his ship crew went to sail south in hopes of exploring a southern continent. They first sighted Espiritu Santo Island, and then his second-in-command, Luis Váez de Torres, sailed west and discovered the Torres Strait.
England established the first permanent English settlement & colony in North America at Jamestown, Virginia.
Samuel du Champlain
A French colonist, ethnologist, diplomat, navigator, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, and chronicler who founded Quebec City.
Henry Hudson, employed by the Dutch East India Company, claimed the Hudson River valley for the Dutch.
The English explorer and navigator first mapped the island of Manhattan.
The Arrival of the Mayflower
On November 20, 1620, the Pilgrims landed in New England in Plymouth to seek for religious freedom. The Pilgrims settled in Plymouth and created America's first permanent Puritan settlement.
Holland Trading Post
Holland created and established a trading outpost in present-day New York City.
His voyage, sponsored by the West Indian Company, resulted in the discovery of Easter Island & set the stage for future voyages to the South Pacific.
The Seven Years War
Using the Americas as a battleground, England and France fought for power and land. The war started in 1756 and ended in 1763. Britain's victory of the war helped them improve their reputation as a powerful country, and also influenced France to side with Americans during the American Revolution.
Treaty of Paris 1763
France accepted their defeat, so after the first Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, the British received Louisiana, Florida, and Canada.
Captain George Vancouver, a British Navy officer, explored, surveyed & mapped the Pacific coast from Alaska to Monterey (between 1790-1795).