Europe

Europe in the 15th and 16th century

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  • Period: 1401 to 1501

    15th century

  • 1402

    Battle of Ankara

    Battle of Ankara
    The Battle of Ankara or Angora took place on July 20, 1402 on the Çubuk Plain near Ankara, between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the Emir of the Timurid Empire, Timur. The battle was a great victory for Timur and led to the Ottoman Interregnum.
  • Period: 1402 to 1496

    The conquest of the Canary Islands

    The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castille took place between 1402 and 1496. It can be divided into two periods: the Conquista señorial, carried out by Castilian nobility in exchange for a covenant of allegiance to the crown, and the Conquista realenga, carried out by the Spanish crown itself, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs.
  • 1403

    The Castilians seized the Canary Islands

  • 1403

    The settlement in the Canary Islands by Castilla.

    The conquest of the Canary Islands was the process by which this archipelago, inhabited by aboriginal peoples, was incorporated by a military occupation to the Crown of Castile throughout the 15th century.
  • Period: 1410 to 1413

    The founding of the University of Saint Andrews in Scotland

    It is the oldest university in Scotland and one of the oldest in the United Kingdom. It was founded in the 15th century, between 1410 and 1413, and today it is still one of the most prestigious universities in the country.
  • 1415

    The Portuguese take over Ceuta

  • 1416

    Portugal begins a systematic exploration of Africa.

    Portugal begins a systematic exploration of Africa.
    The important trade routes of the silk and spices, blocked by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople, The portuguese found a way to go round the african coasts, they also came across Maderia, Cape Verde and the Azores.
  • 1417

    Gregory XII

    Gregory XII
    Martín V succeeds Gregorio XII as pope. He is the fourth pope of the period dominated by the Western Schism and one of the few Roman pontiffs to resign from the Petrine ministry.
  • 1429

    Hundred Years War

    Joan of Arc liberates Orleans, in the framework of the Hundred Years War.
  • 1431

    Joan of Arc was burned at the stake

    Joan of Arc was burned at the stake
    The English claimed many offenses against Joan of Arc. But when she was burned at the stake in Rouen, France, on May 30, 1431, they not only immortalized the 19-year-old, but made her a national symbol for the French cause during the Hundred Years' War.
  • 1440

    The invention of the printing press

    The invention of the printing press
    In Germany, around 1440, goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press, which started the Printing Revolution.
  • 1440

    Jorge Manrique

    Jorge Manrique
    Author of "the verses to the death of his father" one of the classic poems of Spanish literature of all time. He has also composed various love and burlesque poems and is considered one of the most important poets in the Cancionero general.
  • 1450

    The Spanish invented the arquebus (firearm)

    The Spanish invented the arquebus (firearm)
    The harquebus was invented in Spain in the mid-15th century. It was often fired from a support, against which the recoil was transferred from a hook on the gun.
  • 1453

    The fall of the Byzantine Empire

    The fall of the Byzantine Empire
    The conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire was a key event of the Late Middle Ages and is considered the end of the Medieval period.
  • 1455

    The War of the Two Roses

    A conflict that began in England as a result of defeat in the 100 Years War. This civil war ended with the death of King Richard III and the coming to power of the Tudor dynasty.
  • Period: 1455 to 1487

    Wars of the Roses

    The War of the Two Roses was a civil war that intermittently pitted members and supporters of the House of Lancaster against those of the House of York between 1455 and 1487. Both families claimed the throne of England, by common origin in the House of Plantagenet, as descendants of King Edward III.
  • 1460

    Portugal expedition reaches the Gulf of Guinea (Africa)

    Portugal expedition reaches the Gulf of Guinea (Africa)
    Portuguese sailors sailed the Gulf of Guinea and the Cape Verde Islands. Various approaches and reconnaissance of the coasts were made, where it was penetrated by the Volta and Niger rivers.
  • 1469

    Marriage of Isabel I of Castile and Fernando II of Aragon

    Marriage of Isabel I of Castile and Fernando II of Aragon
    Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile in Valladolid, thus beginning a cooperative reign that would unite all the dominions of Spain and elevate the nation to a dominant world power. Ferdinand and Isabella incorporated a number of independent Spanish dominions into their kingdom and in 1478 introduced the Spanish Inquisition.
  • 1481

    Spanish Inquisition

    The Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé. Auto de fe is the only novel by Elias Canetti, Nobel Prize in Literature. Published in Vienna in 1935.
  • 1489

    The first typhoid epidemic occurs in Spain

    The first description of the disease appears in 1489 in Spain during the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. The presence of fever and red spots on the arms, back and chest, deficit in attention with progress towards delirium, gangrenous sores and the stench of rotten meat are described.
  • 1492

    The Catholic Monarchs end the Reconquest

    The Catholic Monarchs end the Reconquest
    The Catholic Monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand set a goal to complete the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula by conquering the Moorish Sultanate and Kingdom of Granada. They launched a series of campaigns known as the Granada War.
  • 1492

    The discovery of America

    The discovery of America
    In the 15th century, Christopher Columbus believed that he could go west to reach the Indies across the Atlantic. He took command of three small ships called La Pinta, La Niña and Santa María and after a long and almost endless journey he landed on a Caribbean island, which was renamed San Salvador, but the name of the island is still up for debate.
  • 1492

    Jews are expelled from Spain

    The expulsion of the Jews from Spain was signed by the Catholic Monarchs on March 31, 1492 in Granada. Far from the criticism that centuries later it received in foreign historiography, the cruel decision was seen as a symptom of modernity and attracted the congratulations of half of Europe.
  • 1493

    Christopher Columbus' second trip to America

    Christopher Columbus' second trip to America
    The second voyage brought European livestock (horses, sheep, and cattle) and settlers to America for the first time. Although Columbus kept a log of his second voyage, only very small fragments survived.
  • 1493

    Tobacco is discovered in America

    People inhabiting the Americas began to use tobacco in religious or spiritual ways. Methods of use may have included smoking, hallucinogenic enemas, and chewing.
  • 1494

    The writings of the Greek historian Herodotus are translated

    The writings of the Greek historian Herodotus are translated
  • 1495

    Leonardo Da Vinci paints "The Holy Supper"

    Leonardo Da Vinci paints "The Holy Supper"
  • 1497

    Juan Caboto explores North America

    Juan Caboto explores North America
    At the end of the 15th century, Juan Caboto decided to offer his services to the English crown, not long after, he made himself heard from the king, who granted him a patent to set up an expedition and find a route to reach Asia from the north, that he considered shorter than the one followed by Columbus. Cabot set sail from Bristol on a ship with which he could not get past Iceland. he manages to cross the North Atlantic in a small ship and reaches North America.
  • 1498

    The third trip to America

    The third trip to America
    According to the abstract of Columbus's journal made by Bartolomé de Las Casas, the objective of the third voyage was to verify the existence of a continent that King John II of Portugal suggested was located to the southwest of the Cape Verde Islands. King John reportedly knew of the existence of such a mainland because "canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea and sailed to the west with merchandise."
  • 1499

    Michelangelo concludes "La Piedad"

    Michelangelo concludes "La Piedad"
  • Period: 1501 to

    The 16th century

  • 1502

    Rodrigo de Bastidas explores Colombian coasts

    Rodrigo de Bastidas explores Colombian coasts
    Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered the Colombian Atlantic, Panama and the Magdalena River and founded the port of Cartagena and Santa Marta. He toured Panama and a large part of the Colombian territory. He discovered the coasts of Colombia and the bays of Santa Marta and Cartagena after having traveled through Venezuela and discovered the Magdalena River and the Gulf of Urabá, discovered the Isthmus of Panama, visited the ports of Retrete and Nombre de Dios.
  • 1503

    The recruitment house is created in Seville

    The recruitment house is created in Seville
    It was created by the Catholic Monarchs in 1503, to administer and control all traffic with the Indies by declaring them the reserved market of Castile. No one could go to America or charter any merchandise for the Indies without going through the Casa de Contratación in Seville; and all merchandise from the Indies had to pass through the control of that institution and pay the 20% tax to the Crown there. But this did not go beyond pre-mercantileism.
  • 1506

    Christopher Columbus died

    Christopher Columbus died
    The navigator and explorer Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid on May 20, 1506, at the age of 55, as a result of a heart attack.
  • 1507

    Smallpox appeared

    Smallpox appeared
    A smallpox epidemic wreaks havoc on the island of Hispaniola.
  • 1517

    Carlos fifth assumes the throne in Spain

    Carlos fifth assumes the throne in Spain
    The prince's grandfather wrote his last testament. In it, he named him Governor and Administrator of the Kingdoms of Castilla y León, on behalf of Queen Juana I, incapacitated by her illness. Regarding the Crown of Aragon, King Ferdinand left all his estates to his daughter Juana, naming Carlos Governor General on behalf of his mother, also in this case.
  • 1519

    Ernan Cortes arrives at Mexico

    Ernan Cortes arrives at Mexico
    In anticipation of Diego Velázquez's dismissal, Cortés's army rushed out of the port of Santiago de Cuba on November 18, 1518. As it was short of supplies, it had to stock up on these in the port of Trinidad and other places. Finally, on February 10, 1519, the fleet left the coast of Cuba. That navy consisted of 11 ships, with 518 infantrymen, 16 horsemen, 13 harquebusiers, 32 crossbowmen, 110 sailors and some 200 Indians and blacks as troop auxiliaries.
  • 1519

    The earth being spherical

    The earth being spherical
    A practical demonstration of the sphericity of the Earth was carried out by Fernando de Magallanes and Juan Sebastián Elcano in their expedition to circumnavigate the world.
  • Period: 1519 to 1521

    Hernán Cortés conquers the Aztec Empire

    The conquest of Mexico refers mainly to the subjugation of the Mexica Empire, achieved by the Spanish army in alliance with other Mesoamerican peoples under the leadership of Hernán Cortés, on behalf of King Carlos I of Spain and in favor of the Spanish Empire between 1519 and 1521 .
  • 1523

    Sweden establishes itself as an independent kingdom

    Sweden is established as an independent kingdom after the Kalmar Union, which is the Nordic dynastic state that emerged as a result of the merger of the three Nordic monarchies (Norway, Sweden and Denmark)
  • 1523

    Protestant Reformation

    The discontent caused by the politics of the Catholic Church and the influence of the reformist humanist ideas of Martin Luther and Calvin provoked popular uprisings in many countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and, later, England.
  • 1531

    Anglican Church

    Anglican Church
    The Church of England breaks with the Roman papacy and proclaims King Henry VIII head of the Anglican Church.
  • 1533

    Francisco Pizarra conquers Peru

    Francisco Pizarra conquers Peru
    The first time the Spanish arrived in Peruvian territory was during Francisco Pizarro's second trip in 1527. They crossed a large part of the north coast: Paita, Sechura, Pacasmayo, to the mouth of the Santa River from where they decided to return to Panama.
    After this event, Pizarro traveled to Spain. The three partners of the conquest Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque went to Toledo where they obtained the signature of the Capitulation of Toledo.
  • 1534

    The share of South America

    The share of South America
    Carlos V made a new distribution of the territories:

    New Castilla or Peru: Pizarro

    New Toledo: Diego de Almagro (imaginary governments)

    New Andalusia: Pedro de Mendoza
    New León: Simón de Alcazaba
    Terra Australis: Pedro Sancho de la Hoz.
  • 1534

    Pizarra executes Atahualpa

    Problems arise with the governments handed over by Carlos V and the possession of the city of Cuzco, collapse of the Inca Empire Jacques Cartier: he begins to explore the north coast of Newfoundland and passes through the Strait of Belle Isle
  • 1534

    The vireinato is created in the new spain

    The viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established in much of North America by the Crown during its rule in the New World, between the 16th and 19th centuries. It originated after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlán, the main event of the conquest, which itself did not end until much later, as its territory continued to grow towards the north.
  • Period: 1540 to 1551

    The indigenous rebellion known as the Mixtón War takes place in the territory of New Spain

  • 1541

    Francisco of Orellana explores the asasumo

    Very little is known about Orellana's early years, because the first time his name comes out is in the conquest of Peru, in which he took part with Francisco Pizarro, his childhood friend. At the end of 1538 Pizarro organized an expedition made up of 300 Spaniards and 4,000 indigenous people, under the command of his brother Gonzalo, and shortly after his departure from Quito he was joined by Orellana with 50 horsemen, and was named by him, second of his troops.
  • 1553

    Mary I

    Mary I
    Mary I of England becomes Queen of England, succeeding her father, Henry VIII.
  • 1558

    Calais city

    Calais city
    France regains the city of Calais, which had been under the control of England for 200 years.
  • Period: 1562 to

    France's Wars of Religion

    The French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Protestants, known as Huguenots, take place
  • 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Battle of Lepanto
    On October 7, 1571, one of the best-known naval battles in the history of Europe took place in Lepanto. The so-called Holy League, formed by the Hispanic Monarchy ruled by Felipe II, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, the Order of Malta, the Republic of Genoa and the Duchy of Savoy, faced the Ottoman Empire, led at that time by Selim. II. The commander thanks to whom such a great victory was obtained was Juan de Austria, natural son of Carlos V.
  • 1576

    The Vikings explore North America

    The Vikings explore North America
    It began with Vikings going around Newfoundland in the year 1000 and continued through the English colonization of the Atlantic coast in the 17th century, which laid the foundation for the United States of America. Centuries after the arrival of Europeans to see the culmination of this endeavor, Americans moved westward across the continent, lured by the lure of wealth, open land, and the nation's desire for the manifest destiny of the nation.
  • 1580

    The Spanish and Portuguese crown are unified in Felipe II

  • Romeo and Juliet published by William Shakespeare

    Romeo and Juliet published by William Shakespeare
    Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young Italian star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.