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  • Jan 1, 1480

    Prince Henry the Navigator Dies

    Prince Henry the Navigator Dies
    Prince Henry of Portugal (or Prince Henry the Navigator) kicks the bucket after having funded West African sea expeditions.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1480 to Apr 2, 1500

    Portuguese Explorations

    The Portuguese were one of the first nations to greatly expand upon maritime technology. During this time period, various Portuguese sailors explored the continent of Africa, and one even landed in Brazil.
  • Apr 2, 1486

    Bartholomeu Dias

    Bartholomeu Dias
    Barthollomeu Dias of Portugal builds upon Prince Henry the Nagivator's legacy. He is able to sail around the Cape of Good Hope,
  • Period: Apr 2, 1492 to Apr 2, 1550

    Spanish Explorations

    During this era, Columbus discovered the Americas which prompted a series of explorations by the Spanish which included men like Ferdinand Magellan.
  • Apr 2, 1497

    John Cabot and the northwest passage

    John Cabot and the northwest passage
    Englishman, John Cabot, explores North American.
  • Dec 31, 1497

    Vasco da Gama

    Vasco da Gama
    Vasco da Gama takes sails around the tip of South Africa and is able to reach India.
  • Apr 2, 1500

    Pedro Cabral—Brazil

    Pedro Cabral—Brazil
    By accident, Pedro Cabral and his crew land in Brazil.
  • Apr 2, 1500

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Amerigo Vespucci
    Around this time, Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian, details the American surroundings helping to give a name to the new landmasses.
  • Apr 2, 1513

    Vasco de Balboa

    Vasco de Balboa
    Balboa, a Spanish explorer, sees the Pacific Ocean and is the first European to do so.
  • Apr 2, 1516

    UTOPIA by Sir Thomas More

    UTOPIA by Sir Thomas More
    Sir Thomas More publishes the book, Utopia, which expresses the idea at the time that the New World offered an outlet from England's domestic troubles and that it could be a new beginning for individuals.
  • Apr 2, 1518

    Cortes and the Aztecs

    Cortes and the Aztecs
    Cortes, after having failed to conquer the Aztecs in an initial assault, conquers the Native American civilization in his second assault. Among the various factors that helped him achieve this victory the second time were the transfer of European diseases to the Aztecs and the help of various rival tribes to the Aztecs.
  • Period: Apr 2, 1518 to Apr 2, 1570


    Theere are three phases in the Spanish colonization. There is the exploration phase. There there is the conquistador phase. Finally, there is the colonization phase.
  • Period: Apr 2, 1519 to Apr 2, 1522

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan, a Spanish explorer, sails around the world.
  • Apr 2, 1520

    Martin Luther excommunicated

    Martin Luther excommunicated
    After disagreeing with the philosphy of the Catholic Church, Martin Luther is excommunicated. He later founds Lutheranism.
  • Apr 2, 1529

    English Reformation

    English Reformation
    King Henry VIII forms his own Protestant branch with himself as the head. In doing so, he severed ties with the pope.
  • Apr 2, 1533

    Francisco PIzzaro and the Incas

    Francisco PIzzaro and the Incas
    PIzzaro kills the Inca emperor. He then became the ruler of the territory, won a civil war against Diego Almargo concerning the rulership, and was assasinated in 1541 as a legacy of the civil war.
  • Apr 2, 1539

    Hernando de Soto and Florida

    Hernando de Soto and Florida
    Soto was a conquistador. Even if he was not very successful, he still explored Florida and he encountered the Mississippi River.
  • Apr 2, 1540

    Francisco Coronado and New mexico

    Francisco Coronado and New mexico
    Coronoado, like Soto, was a conquistador who was not met with a lot of luck. However, he did explore New Mexico.
  • Apr 2, 1540

    John Calvin and Predestination

    Around this time, John Calvin forms the new Protestant religion of Calvinism. Central to this religion was the idea of predestination, or that everyone's future was predetermined when they were born. The qualities of a person or how they lived supposedly gave hints of what that person's futrue would be. Ergo, you would want to be good.
  • Apr 2, 1550

    Vallodalidad debate

    Vallodalidad debate
    The Spanish priests, Las Casas and Sepulveda, debated at Valladolid about the status of Indians in the Spanish Empire. Las Casas said Indians were basically humans and should be treated in such a manner. Sepulveda said they were not fully human and more of a "savage". This was a religious discussion that gained national attention, and it foreshadows the impending Ordiances of Discovery.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1553 to Apr 2, 1558

    Reign of "Bloody Mary"—Catholicism

    Queen Mary converted the religion from her father's Protestant religion back to Catholicism. She is known as "bloody" as she was rutheless in her persecution of Protestants.
  • Period: May 3, 1558 to

    Queen Elizabeth I—Church of England

    Queen Elizabeth once again reverses the nation's official language to Church of England.
  • Period: Apr 2, 1560 to Apr 2, 1580

    English subjugation of Ireland

    The English subjuagte the Irish people. Some of the key players were Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Richard Grenville aand all three men participted in the American colonization by England. The English considered the Irish natives to be savages due to their Catholic religion and foreign language, and the idea of transplantation arose that was later used in the English colonies.
  • Apr 2, 1565

    St. Augustine

    St. Augustine
    St. Augustine is a city in Florida. It had a fort, religious center, and military headquarters. As Brinkley states, it was "the first permanent European settlement in the present-day United States" (Pg. 16).
  • Apr 2, 1570

    Ordinances of Discovery

    The 1570's saw the publishing of various Ordinances of Discovery. They helped to legally decrease the savage nature of the Spanish Empire at that point.
  • Period: Apr 2, 1570 to


    The last phase in the Spanish settlement of the Americas, colonization began with te publishing of the Ordinances of Discovery. This was less harsh than the conquistador age but still harsh for Native Americans as many worked in mines or were in the encomienda system. THIS PERIOD DOES NOT END IN 1607—that is how far this period goes.
  • Sir Humphrey Gilbert

    Sir Humphrey Gilbert
    Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland for England and is soon lost at sea.
  • Roanoke—Attempt #1

    Roanoke—Attempt #1
    Through Sir Richard Grenville, Sir Raleigh establishes the first Roanoke colony. However, the supply ship of Sir Francis Drake shows up late and the Native Americans become antagonized after Grenville elaves the colony. The settlers leave on Drake's ship. It did not help that Grenville had attacked the Indians before he left.
  • Roanoke—Attempt #2

    Roanoke—Attempt #2
    This expedition is led by John White. Sir Walter Raleigh once again funds te expedition. He left to get supplies in Europe, was stuck there for three years, and returned in 1590 to find te Roanoke colony gone with only the word "Croatoan" left.
  • Spanish Armada defeated

    Spanish Armada defeated
    The Spanish Armada is defeated, mostly due to disastrous weather. This opens up the New World for countries like England, France, and the Netherlands.
  • Don Juan de Onate and Santa Fe

    Don Juan de Onate and Santa Fe
    Don Juan de Onate begin to set up Santa Fe which includes some former Indian land. Onate used the encomienda system.
  • East India Company

    East India Company
    The East India Company is formed in England. This demonstrates the recent rise in chartered companies within England as merchants begin to band together as trade increases.
  • Walter Raleigh killed

    Walter Raleigh killed
    With James I now on the throne, Raleigh is jailed and later killed in 1618.
  • Period: to

    King James I—Catholicism

    King James I definitely favored the Catholic faith much more. He believed in absolute monarchy and was not so concerned about democracy.
  • Onate fired

    Onate fired
    Onate is fired due to his brutal leadership over the Naive Americans. At this point, the Pueblo population is much higher than the Spanish in that area.
  • James I charter

  • Quebec Founded

    Quebec Founded
    The French establish their first colony in the New World, Quebec. This is one year after the English founding of Jamestown. The French were known for their more friendly relationships with the natives. However, they were in opposition to the Iriquois as the French were allies with the Iriquous' enemies, the Algonquins. Coureurs de Bois, or fur trappers, were instrumenal in the establishment of Native American alliances. This was especially important as the French lands were more sparsely settled
  • Santa Fe formally founded

    Santa Fe formally founded
    Santa Fe arises after the efforts of the colonist under Onate (who has been fired at this point). The primary industry concerns ranchos.
  • Henry Hudson and New Amsterdam

    Henry Hudson and New Amsterdam
    Henry Hudson is a Netherlands explorer. He explores the New York area.
  • New Amsterdam founded

    New Amsterdam founded
    The first Dutch colony arises. It is called new Amsterdam and its popuation is extremely diversive. The colony was set up through the Dutch West India Company.
  • Pueblo Revolt of 1680

    Pueblo Revolt of 1680
    The Puelbo rebel under the direction of Pope after having their religious pratices suppressed They boot teh Spanish out of Santa Fe.
  • Pueblo independence crushed

    The Spanish regain control of Santa Fe from the Pueblo.