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The Discoverers

  • 4241 BCE

    “Civil Year”

    “Civil Year”
    Egyptians began to use the “civil year” or “Nile year”.
  • 432 BCE

    Metonic Cycles discovered

    Metonic Cycles discovered
    In search of a way to measure the cycle of the seasons in multiples of moon cycles, they eventually discovered the so-called metonic cycle (after and astronomer Meton) of nineteen years.
  • 48 BCE

    Alexandria’s Library Burned

    Alexandria’s Library Burned
    Caesar burned the famous library of Alexandria.
  • 700

    Vikings reached the Faeroe Islands

    Vikings reached the Faeroe Islands
    They reached the Faeroe Islands some 200 miles north of Scotland.
  • 770

    Vikings Began Settling in Iceland

    Vikings Began Settling in Iceland
    They went on and began settling Iceland.
  • Period: 780 to 1070

    Vikings

    The era of the great seafaring Vikings
  • 841

    Vikings Founded Dublin

    Vikings Founded Dublin
    They founded Dublin.
  • Period: 850 to 933

    Harold Fairhair

    Harold Fairhair, who made a strong kingdom in Norway and forced many lesser chieftains to leave the country, had nine sons who reached manhood.
  • Period: 860 to 931

    Rollo the Ganger

    Rollo the Ganger was a Biking chief who brought his invaders twenty years before.
  • 911

    Normandy Offered to Vikings

    Normandy Offered to Vikings
    The Frankish king, Charles the Simple, offered upper Normandy, the area around Rouen, as a fief to Rollo the Ganger, a Viking chief who had brought his invaders twenty years before.
  • 930

    Iceland Fully Occupied

    Iceland Fully Occupied
    It seemed that most of Iceland’s habitable land was fully occupied.
  • 982

    Eric the Red Fled to Iceland

    When Eric was outlawed for manslaughter from his native Norway, he fled to Iceland, where he settled at Haukadal in the west.
  • 982

    Eric the Red Fled to Iceland

    Eric the Red Fled to Iceland
    When Eric had been outlawed for manslaughter from his native Norway, he fled to Iceland where he settled at Haukadal in the west.
  • 986

    Eric Brought an Emigrant Fleet from Iceland

    Eric Brought an Emigrant Fleet from Iceland
    He sailed from Iceland again, this time with an emigrant fleet of twenty-five ships carrying men and women and domestic animals.
  • 986

    Eric Took Full Cargo to Iceland

    Eric Took Full Cargo to Iceland
    In the summer, he took a full cargo to Iceland intending to follow his usual practice of spending the winter there with his father Heriulf.
  • 1001

    Eric Set out for New Land

    Eric Set out for New Land
    He gathered a crew of thirty-five, and set out for the land Bjarni had sighted but did not have the courage or the curiosity to explore.
  • 1066

    England Invasion

    England Invasion
    William of Normandy invaded England
  • Period: 1078 to 1112

    Tancred

    Tancred was a Norman who led the First Crusade, captured Jerusalem, and then established still another kind of Norman kingdom in Syria.
  • 1090

    Su Sung's Clock was created.

    Su Sung's Clock was created.
  • 1291

    Vivaldi Brothers Set Out

    Vivaldi Brothers Set Out
    The Vivaldi brothers from Genoa set out round Africa by the sea, but they disappeared.
  • 1330

    The hour became our modern hour, one of twenty-four equal parts of the day.

    The hour became our modern hour, one of twenty-four equal parts of the day.
  • 1335

    The campanile of the Chapel of the Blessed virgin in Milan is admired by Galvano della Fiamma.

    The campanile of the Chapel of the Blessed virgin in Milan is admired by Galvano della Fiamma.
  • 1342

    The principal of cross-staff was applied in western Europe.

    The principal of cross-staff was applied in western Europe.
  • 1343

    The principal of cross-staff was applied in western Europe.

    The principal of cross-staff was applied in western Europe.
  • 1350

    The Strasbourg clock is made for the Cathedral of Strasbourg, and served the public as a calendar and aid to astrology.

    The Strasbourg clock is made for the Cathedral of Strasbourg, and served the public as a calendar and aid to astrology.
  • Period: 1355 to 1415

    Manuel Chrysoloras

    He was celebrated.
  • 1364

    Giovanni de' Dondi completed a clock that combined a planetarium and a timepiece

    Giovanni de' Dondi completed a clock that combined a planetarium and a timepiece
  • Period: 1373 to 1462

    Palla Strozzi

    Palla Strozzi was one of the family who used the wealth acquired in commerce to become patrons of learning.
  • 1400

    Ptolemy in Greek

    Ptolemy in Greek
    A copy of Ptolemy in Greek was brought from Constantinople to Florence by Palla Strozzi.
  • 1406

    Ptolemy’s Geography

    Ptolemy’s Geography
    Ptolemy’s geographical speculations were published in his Geography which were translated into Greek and Latin, but started to seem out of date by the time it reached the western part of Europe.
  • Period: 1419 to 1444

    Conti in Venice

    A latter-day Venetian merchant traveled for twenty-five years. During these decades in the East, he renounced his Christianity.
  • Period: 1424 to 1434

    Prince Henry’s Expeditions

    Prince Henry sent out fifteen expeditions to round the inconsequential but threatening cape.
  • 1433

    Cape Bojador Reported as Impassible

    Cape Bojador Reported as Impassible
    When Gil Eannes reported back to Prince Henry that Cape Bojador was impassible, the Prince was not satisfied.
  • 1433

    The Great Withdrawal

    The Great Withdrawal
    The Chinese seafaring outreach had been so spectacular.
  • 1434

    Prince Henry Renews Promise for Eannes

    Prince Henry Renews Promise for Eannes
    The Prince sent Gil Eannes back with renewed promise of reward for yet another try.
  • 1435

    Prince Henry Sent out Eannes and Baldaya

    Prince Henry Sent out Eannes and Baldaya
    When Prince Henry sent out Eannes once again, this time with Alfonso Baldaya, the royal cupbearer, they reached another fifty leagues down the coast.
  • 1436

    Baldaya Ordered to Bring Back a Native

    Baldaya Ordered to Bring Back a Native
    When Baldaya went out again, with orders to bring back an inhabitant for the Prince to interview at Sagres, he reached what seemed to be the mouth of a huge river, which he hoped would be the Senegal of “the silent trade” in gold.
  • 1441

    Cape Branco Reached

    Cape Branco Reached
    From Prince Henry’s household went Nuno Tristāo and Antāo Gonçalves, reaching another two hundred fifty miles farther to Cape Branco (Blanco) where they took two natives captive.
  • 1444

    First Human Cargo

    First Human Cargo
    From that area, Eannes brought back the first human cargo-two hundred Africans to be sold as slaves in Lagos.
  • 1445

    Cape Verde Rounded

    Cape Verde Rounded
    When Dinis Dias rounded Cape Verde, the western tip of Africa, in 1445, the most barren coast had been passed, and the prosperous Portuguese trade with west Africa soon engaged twenty-five caravels every year.
  • 1453

    Constantinople Captured

    Constantinople Captured
    The Turks captured Constantinople.
  • 1457

    Cape Verde Islands Discovered

    Cape Verde Islands Discovered
    Alvise da Cadamosto-a Venetian precursor of the Italian sea captains like Columbus, Vespucci, and the Cabots who served foreign princes-advancing down the coast for Prince Henry had accidentally discovered the Cape Verde Islands and then went up the Senegal and Gambia rivers sixty miles from the sea.
  • 1459

    “Planisphere”

    “Planisphere”
    It was beautiful and famous.
  • 1460

    Prince Henry’s Death

    Prince Henry’s Death
    At the time of Prince Henry’s death in Sagres the discovery of the west African coast had only begun, but it was well begun.
  • 1469

    Discovery Becomes Profitable

    Discovery Becomes Profitable
    King Alfonso, Prince Henry’s nephew, in financial difficulty, found a way to make discovery into a profitable business.
  • 1475

    Vicenza

    Vicenza
    This is the earliest printed version of this Latin translation.
  • 1481

    King John II

    King John II
    When Gomes’ contract expired, the King gave the trading rights to his own son, John, who became King John II, opening the next great age of Portuguese seafaring.
  • 1485

    Determining Latitude by the Height of the Sun

    Determining Latitude by the Height of the Sun
    Zacuto’s disciple at Salamanca, Joseph Vizinho, had already accepted the King’s invitation ten years before, and had been sent out on a voyage to develop and apply the technique of determining latitude by the height of the sun at midday.
  • 1492

    Abraham Zacuto Welcomed to Portugal

    Abraham Zacuto Welcomed to Portugal
    When the Spanish Inquisitor - general Torquemada gave Jews three months to convert to Christianity or leave the country, the brilliant Abraham Zacuto left the University of Salamanca and was welcomed to Portugal by King John II.
  • 1508

    South Africa Painted More Accurately

    South Africa Painted More Accurately
    A printed map gave a reasonably precise portrait of the southward extension of Africa.
  • 1543

    Ptolemy writes "De Revolutionibus”

    Ptolemy writes "De Revolutionibus”
  • 1570

    Ptolemy’s Maps Superiority

    Ptolemy’s Maps Superiority
    The “best” atlases still offered reissues of Ptolemy’s obsolete maps.
  • 1574

    The Strasbourg clock is rebuilt with movable feasts, a Copernican planetarium with revolution of the planets, phases of the moon, eclipses, apparent and sidereal times, procession of the equinoxes, and etc.

    The Strasbourg clock is rebuilt with movable feasts, a Copernican planetarium with revolution of the planets, phases of the moon, eclipses, apparent and sidereal times, procession of the equinoxes, and etc.
  • 1577

    Mateo Ricci decided to join the Society of Jesuit.

    Mateo Ricci decided to join the Society of Jesuit.
  • 1578

    Matteo arrives in Goa to study and teach theology.

    Matteo arrives in Goa to study and teach theology.
  • Galileo Galilei discovers isochronism.

    Galileo Galilei discovers isochronism.
  • Galileo Galilei discovers isochronism.

    Galileo Galilei discovers isochronism.
  • John Davis devised the handier backstaff

    John Davis devised the handier backstaff
  • John Davis devised the handier backstaff.

    John Davis devised the handier backstaff.
  • Tycho Brahe writes "Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica"

    Tycho Brahe writes "Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica"
  • The Imperial Astronomers dictated that an eclipse would occur at 10:30 and would last for two hours. They were wrong. The Jesuits forecast-ed that the ellipse would happen at 11:30 and would last one two minutes.

    The Imperial Astronomers dictated that an eclipse would occur at 10:30 and would last for two hours. They were wrong. The Jesuits forecast-ed that the ellipse would happen at 11:30 and would last one two minutes.
  • Hooke conjectured a marine clock made by the use of springs instead of Gravity.

    Hooke conjectured a marine clock made by the use of springs instead of Gravity.
  • The Royal Society was founded

    The Royal Society was founded
  • Robert Hooke wrote "Micrographia"

    Robert Hooke wrote "Micrographia"
  • Huygens made a watch with a balance spring.

    Huygens made a watch with a balance spring.
  • An English fleet foundered on the rocks of Scilly Islands.

    An English fleet foundered on the rocks of Scilly Islands.
  • Parliament passed an act " For providing a Publick Reward for such Person or Persons as shall discover the Longitude at Sea".

    Parliament passed an act " For providing a Publick Reward for such Person or Persons as shall discover the Longitude at Sea".
  • In" Rake's Progress" Hogarth tries to solve the puzzle of longitude.

    In" Rake's Progress" Hogarth tries to solve the puzzle of longitude.
  • London announced the declaration of war against Spain.

    London announced the declaration of war against Spain.
  • London announced the declaration of war against Spain.

    London announced the declaration of war against Spain.
  • The cannon clock was installed by the Duke of Orleans in the garden of Palais Royal

    The cannon clock was installed by the Duke of Orleans in the garden of Palais Royal
  • The cannon clock was installed by the Duke of Orleans in the garden of Palais Royal

    The cannon clock was installed by the Duke of Orleans in the garden of Palais Royal
  • Period: to

    28-Day Passage

    Captain Magnus Andersen made a 28-day passage from Bergen to Newfoundland through a stormy sea in an exact replica of the Gökstad ship.
  • Solar Calendar Used Worldwide

    Solar Calendar Used Worldwide
    Kemal Ataturk (Mustapha Kemal) modernized the nation by adopting a new code of laws, by making civil marriage compulsory, and by abolishing the fez for men and the veil for women, he also abandoned the lunar calendar of Islam and adopted he solar calendar of the West.