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    Arms Race between European Nations

    European nations tried to intimidate one another by increasing the size of their armed forces. European military spending was increased hugely between 1870 and 1914. Tensions also increased as nations tried to outdo each other militarily.
    The Days and months are not correct.
  • German Unification Complete

    Prussia and German Kingdoms are unified into a single nation. Wilhelm I proclaimed Kaiser (Emperor). German nationalism plays a large part in the unification of the German Empire.
  • Franco-Prussian War Ends

    France was forced to sign humiliating treaty with Germany that ended the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War. France had to give up territory, Alsace-Lorraine, on the French German border. The French bitterly resented their defeat by the Germans. France was determined to regain Alsace-Lorraine. Germany was equally determined to keep Alsace-Lorraine. Francewas left with a long-lasting desire for revenge on Germany. Competing nationalismis played a role in creating a deep hatred between the French&Germans
  • Triple Aliance Formed

    A millitary treaty was signed among Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy. The three countries agreed to support each other if attaked by either France or Russia. France felt threatened by this alliance. Britain was also concerned by the growth in the German Navy.
  • Period: to

    The Balkan Powder Keg*

    The Balkan region in southeastern Europe was made up of several small nations with various ethnic groups. Nationalism was a factor as each nation wanted independence. Austria-Hungary and Russia also competed with each other for control over the region. THe tensions in the Balkans were running so high that many expected the region to explode into a major Europeanwar. All that was needed was someting to set it off.
    The month and the days are not correct.
  • Triple Entente Formed

    A military treaty among Britian, France, and Russia was built on earlier agreements among these nations, the Triple Entente sought to counter the Triple Allience. The Triple Entente assured that they would be there for all members of the treaty in case of an attack.
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

    Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his wife visited Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia, a nation located in the "Balkan Powder Keg" region of Eroupe. A Bosnian nationalist shot the Archduke and his wife as they drove by, both were killed. Nationalists from Serbia had the training and the guns to make it possible. This was the sparke that started the Powder Keg.
  • Austria-Hungary Decclared War on Serbia

    Austria-Hungary went to war against Serbia because Serbia did not accept all of the demands of the ultimatum. The alliance system drew one nation after another into the war.
  • Germany Declared War on Russia

  • Germany Declared War on France

  • Britain Declared War on Germany

  • Austria-Hungary Declared War on Russia

  • Japan Declared War on Germany

  • Turkey Joined the Central Powers

    In a agreement with Germany, Turkey entered the war against the Allies.
  • Poison Gas First Used by the Germans

    During the second battle of Ypres, the Germans used chlorine gas on British soldiers. Thousands of British soldiers died within minutes. The Allies later used poison gas against the Germans. The use of poison gas was against inernational agreements.
  • Italy Declared War on Austria-Hungary

    Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance but had avoided entering the war. Italy entered the war on the sides of the Allies in hopes of gaining territory from Austria-Hungary.
  • Britain Passed Military Service Act

    So many British soldiers had been killed that volunteers could not make up for the loss. Conscription required men of a certain age to join th military ( health permitting). British conscription law allowed for conscientious objectors not to join the armed forces. Conscientious objectors were those who objected to war on moral grounds. THe conscientious objector clause was not very clear, however, and thousands of British men went to prison under harsh conditions.
  • Germany Issued Peace Note

    Through a diplomatic letter, Germany suggested peace negotiations to the Allies to end the war. The Allies refused.
  • Zimmerman Note

    The German Foreign Minister, Zimmerman, sent a message to Mexico. THe message encouraged the Mexicans to join Germany against the Americans. The British intercepted the message and showed it to the Americans. The Americans were outraged.
  • The United States Declared War on Germany

    The U.S. joined the war on the side of the Allies, America prepared to send soldiers to the Western Front.
  • Canadians took Vimy Ridge

    French and British troops had not been able to take this strategic high ground on the Western Front from the Germans. Through meticulous planning and a long artillery bombardment of the German trenches, Canadian soldiers were able to capture the ridge. The victory at Vimy Ridge remained a high point in the making of the Canadian nation. There has been great Canadian pride in this event.
  • Canada Passed the Military Service Act

    Because of the large numbers of war dead and low numbers of volunteers, the Canadian army needed more soldiers. A conscription crisis had emerged in Canada, especially in Quebec.
  • The United States Passed The Selective Service Act

    The United States drafted (same as conscripted) men for the armed forces.
  • Russia Opened Peace Negotiations with Germany

    The Russian communist gevernment signed an armistice with Germany. Russia was out of the war. Germany was able to move troops from the Eastern Front to the Western Front. The final peace agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and Germany was signed on Mar. 3, 1918. Russia lost much territory to Germany.
  • Period: to

    Flu Epidemic

    Around the world, the Spanish Flu killed more people than WWI-- an estimated 50 million people. WWI killed an estimated 20 million (both civilian and military). (The month and days are not correct).
  • The central Power Started to Collapse

    The German armies retreated to the Hindenberg line. The Hindenberg Line waas a heavily fortified German position. Allied troops broke through the German fortificationsat the Hindenberg line.
  • Turkey is Defeated

  • The Armistice

    At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, Germany and the Allies signed an armistice. Shooting stopped on the Wstern Front. A state of war existed until a peace treaty was signed. This meant that fighting could still break out.
  • Paris Peace Conference Began

    The peace conference was held in Paris, Fance. All the Allied nations sent representatives. The "Big Four" dominated the conference: the United States, Britain, France, and Italy. None of the Central Powers were allowed to attend. The Peace United States wanted to use President Wilson's 14 points as a basis for the peace treaty. The rest of the BIg Four rejected mant of the 14 points. Britian and France wanted to punish Germany.
  • Treaty of Versailles Officially Ended WWI

    The peace treaty was signed by German delegates and Allies at the Palace of Versailles, France.